Timeline of Featured Stories

Satirical prints by James Gillray It is worth remembering that while this site concentrates on invasion scare stories of the Victorian and Edwardian era there is a long history of invasion fears represented in literature and art. Of particular interest are the satirical prints dating from the late 18C and early 19C, especially those of James Gillray.From the outbreak of war with France in the same year, fear abounded that the French would invade England or Ireland. Gillray produced prints in which he imagined the horrors of a successful French invasion, with the streets of London literally running with blood, and the destruction of such symbolic landmarks as the Bank of England. Supporters of parliamentary reform and Republican sympathisers in Britain, such as Charles James Fox and his Whig supporters, are demonised in these prints, which show them rejoicing in the effects of the Revolution, and encouraging the French to cross the Channel to destroy the British way of life. [Tate Gallery] Hand-coloured print depicting 'French Invasion or Buonaparte Landing in Great Britain (caricature)'. This is the first of a series of invasion prints by Gillray following the resumption of war between Britain and France in May 1803. In typical ...
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Anonymous,  "Coming events cast their shadows before." A history of the sudden and terrible invasion of England by the French, in the month of May, 1852, London, T. Bosworth, 1851 According to I.F. Clarke: Many feared that military weakness at home would invite attack from abroad; and for the rest of the century not a decade passed without an alarm of some kind about the dangers pressing upon the nation. After the coup d'état by Louis Napoleon, for instance, there were general fears that the French might attempt an invasion. In order to demonstrate the defenceless condition of the country an anonymous author wrote A History of the sudden and terrible invasion of England by the French ... in May 1852 ( London, 1851). This was the first complete imaginary war of the future to be written in English, and it anticipated Chesney's technique of giving a detailed account of the weaknesses that led to the disaster. [Clarke, I. (1965). The Battle of Dorking, 1871-1914. Victorian Studies, 8(4), 309-328] PREFACE. ESCAPING by a miracle from the sacking of London, I was employed by the paralyzed Government to take despatches from Liverpool to Washington ; what the contents of these despatches ...
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Alfred Bates Richards (1870) The Invasion of England - A Possible Tale of Future Times, privately published (August 1870) and reprinted in the Morning Advertiser, 15 February 1871 One answer to the new danger came from the editor of the Morning Advertiser, Alfred Bates Richards, who had played a leading part in the establishment of the Volunteers. In the August of 1870 he had a pamphlet printed for private circulation, The Invasion of England, in which he described a successful enemy attack as a warning against "our blind and entire reliance on the Channel and our navy." [I.F. Clarke (1965) The Battle of Dorking, 1871-1914] On Chesney's Battle of Dorking, the Encyclopedia of Science Fiction comments: An earlier and inferior story, Alfred Bate Richards's The Invasion of England (A Possible Tale of Future Times) (1870 chap, privately printed), had had little effect. [SFE] Richards, Alfred Bate .... UK editor of the Morning Advertiser from 1870 until his death, playwright and author. For many years he was active as a propagandist for UK military preparedness, but The Invasion of England (A Possible Tale of Future Times) (1870), published privately, had little impact, partly because it lacked any effective narrative frame. It ...
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George Tomkyns Chesney (1871) The Battle of Dorking, Blackwood’s Magazine For many, this is the work that is regarded as the start of Invasion Literature as a distinct genre. DURING THE EVENING OF 2 September 1871, the British Prime Minister spoke to the Working Men's Liberal Association at Whitby in Yorkshire. Towards the end of his speech he warned his audience and the nation against the dangers of alarmism. It was an unusual occasion in British political history, since Gladstone was attacking a short story that had appeared four months earlier in the May issue of Blackwood's Magazine. It was an even more remarkable moment in literary history. Gladstone was paying unwilling tribute to the effectiveness of The Battle of Dorking, a short story about an imaginary invasion of the British Isles that had alarmed the nation, astonished Europe, pleased many readers in the United States, and established the tale of the war-to-come as a favourite means of presenting arguments for - or against - changes in the naval, military, or political arrangements of a country during the years from 1871 to 1914. Sir George Tomkyns Chesney, the anonymous author of the Bat- tle of Dorking, had written the first ...
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Anonymous (1871) After the Battle of Dorking; or what became of the invaders? London, George Maddick A short pamphlet follow on to the aftermath of the Battle of Dorking. Original text at: https://archive.org/details/afterbattledork00unkngoog ...
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Anonymous (1871) Britannia in Council, London, Grant & Co. Britannia in Council: A Political Retrospect (1871), in which the Battle of Dorking is re-enacted as a kind of Near Future pantomime, in which John Bull and other similar figures reminisce animatedly about the events of 1871, the minatory bite of George T Chesney's tale being translated into farce. [SFE]. This little brochure is described as a "political retrospect." It hits hard at the follies and failures of the Ministers during the Session, and will be read with pleasure by all who can appreciate a smart and racy satire. [Derby Mercury - Wednesday 18 October 1871, p.6] ...
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Anonymous (1871) Der Ruhm or The Wreck of German Unity - The Narrative of a Brandenburger Haupmann - Macmillan's Magazine A counter to The Battle of Dorking ...
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Anonymous (1871) Our hero: or, who wrote “The Battle of Dorking” No information currently available ...
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Anonymous (1871) The Battle of Dorking - Punch 20th May 1871 ...
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Anonymous (1871) The Battle of Dorking: a Myth No information currently available ...
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Anonymous (1871) The Battle of the Ironclads, or England and her foes In this patriotic forecast of our naval future a hale sea-captain of 1893 is supposed to recount what was England's luck when, fourteen years before, "she met with and overcame the united powers of Germany, America, and Russia." A reaction is supposed to have set in against the Liberals in 1874, and a Conservative Ministry to have looked to our military and naval defences, in bare time to meet the Sclavo-Germanian confederacy's preparations. But for three or four years it was only distant thunder that preluded the great collision. In 1878 Russia and Turkey fell to in earnest, Hobart Pasha having, in an Englishman's spirit, answered the intentional insult of a Russian fire from the port of Odessa with a broadside from his nine-inch Woolwich guns. How Great Britain stood by Turkey against Russia, how Austria cast in her lot with England, and Germany, to keep the balance of power, stood by Russia ; how the United States Government found this fitting Occasion to fall foul of Canada, and so Congress became involved in war with the old mother country," and through what a series of trials, discouragements, ...
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Anonymous (1871) The hens who tried to crow. No information currently available ...
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Anonymous (1871) The suggested invasion of England by the Germans No information currently available ...
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Anonymous [Charles John Stone] (1871) What happened after the battle of Dorking: reminiscences of a volunteer. Being an account of the victory at Tunbridge Wells,New York: G. Routledge & sons. Original Text at: http://hdl.handle.net/2027/hvd.32044080694029 ...
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Abraham Hayward (1871) The Second Armada. A Chapter of Future History. (aka. The Second Armada: A Chapter of Future History: Being a Reply to the German Conquest of England in 1875, and Battle of Dorking) Britain defeats an American navy which has invaded the Irish Sea in 1875 in order to help the Fenians, who now control Ireland [SFE] The story [Battle of Dorking] was seen as a 'wake up' call for rearmament and national preparation, a message which was emphasised by Abraham Hayward in Ins own more optimistic account entitled 'The Second Armada' which first appeared In The Times, in June 1871 and was then published by Porter and Coates in the same year. It was later reprinted in the Third Series of Hayward's Biographical and Critical Essays in 1874. Hayward, in his version, described how Britain was under threat by a League of powerful nations. The nations intended to invade, assisted by the American navy and then conquer the country and divide the British Isles between member states. [ Anthony Chessell (2009) The Life and Times of Abraham Hayward, Q.C. Victorian Essayist 'One of the Two Best Read Men in England'] From the book: "EVERYBODY is talking about ...
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Bracebridge Hemyng (1871) The Commune in London : or, Thirty years hence : a chapter of anticipated history, London : C.H. Clark. The Commune in London: A Chapter of Anticipated History (1871) by S B Hemyng, who describes, with a wealth of detail, the ravages and crimes committed in the good city of London by a bloodthirsty working class mob led by demonic female insurgents and secretly controlled by agents of the International. [International Socialism quoting Utopia Ltd. Ideologies of Social Dreaming in England 1870-1900 by Matthew Beaumont]. The Commune in London, or Thirty Years Hence: A Chapter of Anticipated History (1871 chap), is an anti-Communard version of the 1871 uprising in Paris as translated into a UK already deeply anxious about threatened upheavals and Invasions [SFE] Biographical details can be found at http://john-adcock.blogspot.co.uk/2013/04/jack-harkaways-father-1849-1901.html ...
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J.W.M. (1871) The Coming Cromwell. Set in a Near Future Britain in which the eponymous military and political leader conquers the monarchist northlands of Britain on behalf of the republican south, overturning the German monarchy as well en passant. [SFE] ...
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J.W.M. (1871) The Siege of London: Reminiscences of "Another Volunteer" Records events directly after the main Battle of Dorking scenario, including the defeat of the German army attempting to occupy London [SFE] ...
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Motly Ranke McCauley (1871) Chapters from Future History: The Battle of Berlin (Die Schlacht von Königsberg) - Note: dated 1890 as published An account of an imaginary war; Germany decides to take possession of Heligoland, and is defeated in the resulting war with Great Britain. Combats the pessimistic Battle of Dorking scenario through its focus on an 1875 Germany about to turn republican. An Invasion on the part of British and other forces, and the defeat of Russian imperialists, indeed generates a republic, and the eventual confederation of all Europe [SFE] Full text at: http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015050664161;view=1up;seq=9 ...
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Maximilian Moltruhn (1871) The Other Side of the Battle of Dorking, or Reminisences of an Invader, London, Whittaker Moltruhn is believed to be the pseudonym of an unidentified British writer. The Other Side at the Battle of Dorking (1871) by Maximilian Moltruhn, retelling the original tale of British defeat from a German viewpoint. A German participant in the Invasion of the UK tells his story; the tale preserves the main thrust of the Battle of Dorking scenario: the defeat of the unready British. [SFE] It begins with a parody of the opening of The Battle of Dorking: “You ask me, mein lieber Fritz, to tell you something about my share in that great event of fifty years ago, the ‘Invasion of England.’ ‘Tis sad work turning back to that bitter page in Deutschland’s history.” ...
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James Payn (1871) The Cruise of the Anti-Torpedo, Chambers Journal [Being an account of the voyage of the last ship left to England after its conquest by Bismark & Co. (Limited) ; what she did, and what she omitted to do; and how she finally succeeded single-handed (as a pawn regains a queen), in restoring the fallen fortunes of our beloved country.] One of the many post-Battle of Dorking stories. THE CRUISE OF THE ANTI-TORPEDO. IN THREE CHAPTERS.—CHAPTER 1. 'Go on ahead!' cried our gallant captain. 'Go on ahead !' reiterated the call-boy in his shrill treble; and that noble monument of ship-building skill, the Bella Donna, sped swiftly seawards, leaving Old England behind her, perhaps for ever. But was it the call-boy? It may be as well to state at once, that though holding an official position on board the vessel in question, I knew nothing of nautical affairs. Perhaps it was the cabin-boy. The reader must excuse all technical errors in this narration. My position was peculiar, if not unparalleled. A fortnight had elapsed since England's comb had been cut at Dorking, and my beloved country was lying beneath the iron heel of its German conqueror. Our entire ...
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(1871) Reactions to The Battle of Dorking In the months following the publication of Chesney's The Battle of Dorking a veritable raft of articles and books appeared that variously explained: What happened nextWhy it couldn't have happened as it didWhat might have happened insteadSatires based on the workThe battle from a German point of view They include the following (all 1871 unless noted otherwise and anonymous except where authors are listed): A Punch verse on the Battle of DorkingAfter the Battle of Dorking; or what became of the invaders?The Battle of Dorking: a MythBritannia in CouncilThe cruise of the Anti-Torpedo [J. Payn]The hens who tried to crowOur hero: or, who wrote "The Battle of Dorking"The official despatches and correspondence relative to the Battle of Dorking, as moved for in the House of CommonsThe suggested invasion of England by the GermansThe Siege of London: Reminiscences of "Another Volunteer" [JWM]The Coming Cromwell [J.W.M.]What happened after the Battle of Dorking; or, the Victory of Tunbridge WellsThe other side of the Battle of Dorking [M. Moltruhn]Mrs Brown on the Battle of Dorking [A. Sketchley (G. Rose)]The Battle of Pluck (1875)The Invasion of 1883 (1876) [J. Maclehose] ...
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Arthur Sketchley [George Rose] (1871) Mrs Brown on the Battle of Dorking ...
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Octogenarian (1872) The British Federal Empire; how it was Founded. A Speech Delivered in a Certain Year of the Twentieth Century, in a Certain City of the Empire, London: C. H. Clarke Fife Herald - Thursday 20 June 1872: The British Federal Empire in the 20th Century. Octogenarian. London: C. H. ClarkeThis oracular sketch of what the British Empire will be when all its divisions are to be united to England and to each other the federal ties which Isaac Butt demands for Ireland. The reasoning employed to show that such ties are the most natural, proper, and safe, is inconclusive; and the sketch of the glorious prosperity and harmony which would thence result to our great empire is exceedingly vague, a mirage which could deceive no eyes. We may inform our readers that when the home-divisions and the foreign dependencies of the British Empire become federally related to England, the gigantic, yet ever-growing American Republic is to solicit and obtain permission to become part of that British Empire ! America has often boasted that she will swallow up this Empire as mere cherry, but the idea of America not only consenting, but proposing to give up her separate existence ...
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Clarendon Macaulay [Walter Marshall Adams] (1874) The Carving of Turkey; a chapter of European history, from sources hitherto unpublished. London, Meads & Co ...
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Anonymous (1875) The Battle of Pluck No information currently available ...
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Anonymous (1876) The Invasion of 1883. A Chapter from the Book of Fate, Glasgow, James Maclehose. Glasgow Herald - Monday 22 May 1876, p.5: INVASION OF SCOTLAND BY THE GERMANS. The Invasion of 1883, a Chapter from the Book of Fate," is the title of a little pamphlet published by Mr James MacLehose, of this city. It is one of the numerous brood of the famous "Battle of Dorking," which in its time set the whole country a-cackling. The Glasgow chicken is not, however, altogether unworthy of its game-cockish paternity; for although it has chipped the shell at a pretty late date, it is early enough to crow a warning to those whose duty it is to see that the country is put in a thoroughly efficient state of defence against any possible invasion from our present friends on the Continent. The political Maelstrom is pretty active just now; and many shrewd people imagine that its revolving coils are insensibly widening, and that not Improbably at no late date they will swoop into their ghastly current the leading nations of Europe. "Even our own country may be unable to keep out of the whirl. In fact, the author, having looked ...
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Cassandra (1876) The Channel Tunnel; or, England's ruin, London, William Clowes and Sons No further information available at present ...
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Anonymous (1877) Fifty Years Hence - An Old Soldiers Tale of England's Downfall, London, G.W. Bacon & Co. A soldier's reminiscences from 1927. Britain gets dragged into a conflict between Russia and Turkey on the Turkish side. Austria, our only ally, is pressured by Germany to stand aside and the British declare war on Russia when the Suez canal is blocked and Alexandria bombarded. Germany aligns with Russia. Our fleet suffers eventual defeat and a weakened Britain cannot prevent an uprising in India that quickly frees it from British rule. Britain is forced to accept punitive peace terms. IT was a beautiful autumn evening in the year 1927 ; the cool refreshing breeze—so welcome after the hot harvest day—brought with it those delightful odours which tell us that the time of fruits is at hand : the ripening grain waved its tall head proudly, as if boasting that it was ready for the reaper, or already gathered into sheaves seemed to sing a song in' soft cadences to the wind, whilst the birds warbling sweetly overhead added a charm to the scene. In front of a comfortable country house sat a man, whose grey hairs betokened age, and whose face, ...
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W. H. Walker (1877) The Invasion An account of an imaginary invasion of Australia by a Russian fleet. WE had lived such a hum-drum life at Parkestown for long, that when on the morning of the 18th May, 187—, the Herald was not delivered as usual, I almost felt as if the Solar System had gone out of gear. Reflection showed me that the irregularity might be accounted for by some minor cause, but when ten o'clock came, and brought, instead of the paper, an appalling rumour, through our butter and pumpkin merchant, I thought that I might as well walk across the paddock and see my neighbour Smith. Living a mile from the main road, and a long way from town, the news that reached us through such irregular channels was generally wholly unreliable, and this might be only one of the hundred false alarms that had startled Sydney for a year past. Still I detected, or fancied I detected, a colour of fact in this, that distinguished it from other reports that had reached us before, and the non-arrival of the paper might, after all, augur some event of importance. Full text at: https://archive.org/details/invasion00walkgoog ...
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A. Dekhnewallah (1879) The Great Russian Invasion of India - A sequel to the Afghanistan campaign of 1878-9 In 1879, a certain A. Dekhnewallah published a pamphlet, The Great Russian Invasion of India, which described a future war between the two empires. Advancing through Afghanistan, Russian troops occupy the Punjab and Central provinces. Their attack is well prepared by the numerous spies who provoke mutiny among lower castes. British India is saved by an artillery officer, "a quiet man with large dreamy eyes," who withdraws the troops to Kashmir and organizes cunning attacks on the invaders. Finally, the British send navy expeditions into the Black Sea and the Baltic, forcing the Russians to purchase peace at the expense of giving up Afghanistan and Persia. [Alexander Etkind (2011) Internal Colonization: Russia's Imperial Experience, p.35] Matin [A. Michael Matin (1999) Studies in the Novel, Vol. 31, No. 3 (fall 1999), pp. 317-356] comments upon The Great Russian Invasion of India: The 1879 narrative The Great Russian Invasion of India—which, published during the Second Anglo-Afghan War, is addressed to a home readership who are accused of "indulging in complacent dreams of the invincibility of British arms in Asia" —depicts such circumstances as well, ...
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José Maria Eça de Queirós (1879) A Catastrofe - published posthumously in 1925 The following are taken from Alan Freeland (1999) Imagined endings: national catastrophe in the fiction of Eca de Queiros, Portuguese Studies, Jan 1999: 'A Catastrofe', first published posthumously in 1925.  In approaching this text we need to bear in mind its status as a draft that the novelist himself left unpublished, apparently abandoned. For convenience I shall refer to it here as a story. However, its interest does not lie in its literary value as a finished and polished conto, but in Eca's exploration of a particular form of the imagined end of the nation--the invasion and occupation of Portugal in the context of a wider European conflagration. 'A Catastrofe' belongs to the genre of future-war fiction that was so prolific in Europe and beyond in the years between the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71 and the outbreak of the Great War in 1914. 'A Catastrofe' was obviously written after the letter to Ramalho of November 1878, and may date from 1879 or the early 1880s, judging by its links with O Crime do Padre Amaro and Os Maias. It was first published, and indeed given its title, ...
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Lang-Tung (Pseudonym) (1881) The Decline and Fall of the British Empire: Being a History of England Between the Years 1840-1981: Written for the Use of Junior Classes in Schools Two satires on imperial inefficiency and the excesses of the Gilded Age take the long view of history, within which both Britain and the USA have disappeared into obscurity. The Decline and Fall of the British Empire (1881) ironically reduces Gibbon's grand history to a pamphlet designed for use in junior schools. Its simple question-and-answer sequence infanfilizes the projected reader, the whole work being presented as a primer, translated from the Chinese, by Lang-Tung, professor of history at the University of Peking. The latter explains that the book is "intended for use in the upper classes of our National Schools". This pamphlet unusually projects an infantilized reader for its mock-millennial catalogue of imperial inadequacies…… [David Seed, "Framing the Reader in Early Science Fiction," Style 47, no. 2 (2013)] Here is an excerpt of a popular magazine of the period (Cassell's Family Magazine, June 1889), giving news of quasi nowhere in Africa, where Stanley is battling against odds, nature and people. Especially people who, when resisting his advance, are said to be ...
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Anonymous (1882) Submarina: or Green Eyes and Blue Glasses - The Channel Tunnel. Danger to England or No Danger!, London: Yates, Alexander and Shepheard, 21 Castle Street, Holborn,E.C A strange tale, from 100 years ahead, of the debates around the danger of a channel tunnel. Extract: As to the unmitigated disastrousness of the scheme of which we hear, I was under the impression before I left my club this evening that there could be no two opinions on the subject Is it too much for most obtuse and dull imagination on the other side of this House to picture the inevitable result of establishing land communication between Great Britain and the Continent Of Europe. The bare possibility Of substituting a one hour's journey under the sea for a two hours' journey over it would be a temptation so great as to kindle a passion for war and conquest in the most peace-loving of nations. Think for a moment of the result of placing such an opportunity in the hands of impulsive Frenchmen. Throw for a moment the mind's. eye into the future, and see the easy excuse which would at once be found by perfidious foreigners for a declaration of ...
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Anonymous [Sir William Butler] (1882) The Invasion of England, told twenty years after by an old soldier, Sampson Low, London A telling example of this form of apocalyptic novel is the anonymously authored The Invasion of England: Told Twenty Years After, by an Old Soldier, ...... The unattributed opening epigraph contains fantastic imagery similar to that of Revelation: “And I saw two hosts conflicting in the air, / And shadows doubtless of the unborn time, / Cast on the mirror of night.”  There is the apocalyptic sense of impending violence, as “portents of war were observable throughout the empire, and the air was filled with rumours of approaching tumult.”  This hardly prepares the reader for another turgid account of England’s unpreparedness in the face of unprovoked enemy invasion.  [Ernie Hilbert, ‘Preludes to Armageddon: Apocalyptic Clamor and Complaint in Britain, 1850-1914’, Journal of Millennial Studies, Vol. 1 Issue 2. 1999] ...
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Rev. Thomas Berney (1882) The battle of the channel tunnel and Dover Castle and forts : a letter (March 11th, 1882, but with some corrections and modifications) to the Right Honourable Wm. Ewart Gladstone, M.P., First Lord of the Treasury Sir, I beg leave with great respect to address you upon a subject which has long been a source of the greatest anxiety to me, and to which I am most thankful to see that you have given your recent attention in the appointing of a Scientific Committee ; and then, I learn, of a Committee on the question of the Expediency or Non-expediency of the proposed Channel Tunnel; " that the Government might give it their immediate and complete attention," and " communicate their opinion to the House before any proceedings " be " taken upon the two private Bills before the House." I have recently read for the 'first time, in the Evening Standard of February 6th, the reported “Conversation " upon the subject with Sir Garnet Wolseley : and although the gallant General does not enter into that question, I think I may gather from it, that it would require a permanent Force of 20,000 men to ...
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The "Demure One" [pseud.] (1882) The Battle of Boulogne: Or How Calais Became English Again: Another Version of the Channel Tunnel Affair  1882 was a significant year for the student of apocalyptic writing. It is then that more apocalyptic books were published in England than at any other single time before 1914, and it was also a point at which the religious apocalyptic book temporarily gave way to its far more fashionable Future-War apocalyptic brother. The concerns centered chiefly on the proposed building of the channel tunnel and its possible use as a means of invasion by a foreign army. The idea of a channel tunnel was first proposed at the beginning of the nineteenth century by a French engineer who recognized the architectural possibilities inherent in the chalk floor. Napoleon showed interest, but intermittent periods of war prevented him from realizing any project along these lines. Private companies began digging a railroad tunnel near Folkestone, Kent, early in the Century. A 6,000 ft. long tunnel was bored from the English side, but this project was halted after a national frenzy over the possibility of invasion from the mainland. While religious or primary apocalyptic authors continued to converge on issues ...
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Grip (1882) How John Bull Lost London or The Capture of The Channel Tunnel - London, Sampson Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington A French invasion through the Channel Tunnel. Includes the Battle of Guildford and the Capture of London. Full text at: https://archive.org/details/howjohnbulllost00gripgoog ...
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Guthrie, T.A. (1882) The Seizure of the Channel Tunnel No further information available at this time ...
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Vindex (pseudonym) England Crushed; The Secret of the Channel Tunnel Revealed: Being the Literal Translation of a Secret Despatch Recently Revised and Adopted by an August Federal Cabinet, Divulged to Vindex This was the work of a conspiracy theorist, and although it is not in the form of a fictional narrative, it carries the same message and embodies the same fears as fictive accounts of invasion.  It ostensibly consisted of intercepted memoranda, addressed to an unidentified ‘Highborn Excellency’, from a German representative; the author of these memoranda suggested that the English work in collusion with them in order to defeat France in France’s “inevitable ‘ Revanche War,’” but it is later revealed that the Germans intend to attack England as well: “The ‘West Saxon Army,’ numbering at least 100,000 men, will be landed on the coast of England near Deal (due preparations having been made there by filling the district with Germans incognito.)” Although this is not fiction in the obvious sense, it is apocalyptic, written with the intention of inducing a sense of national crisis.  [Ernie Hilbert, 'Preludes to Armageddon: Apocalyptic Clamor and Complaint in Britain, 1850-1914', Journal of Millennial Studies, Vol. 1 Issue 2. 1999] ...
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Anonymous (1883) The Battle of the Moy: Or How Ireland Gained Her Independence in 1892-1894 The year 1892 opened upon a gloomy prospect, — a period of impending strife and conflict in Europe. Everywhere discontent was manifest, and people grew more and more restless under the government of kings and princes. Nihilism, Socialism, and Democracy honeycombed and permeated every civilized community. The Russian government, as a last resort to escape destruction, had granted autonomy to long-suffering Poland ; the Turks had retired to the Asiatic side of the Bosphorus, whence they came ; and the Greeks, whose territory was now expanded to its ancient domain, occupied Constantinople as their original capital, Byzantium. Bosnia, Herzegovina, and Albania had been consolidated with Dalmatia as a Christian republic, called the Dalmatian League. Norway, separated from Sweden, had become a republic. The people of British North America had asked and had received autonomy, and were now the Republic of Canada. India, taking fire from the example of Christian lands, became restive, and consequently England had sent large bodies of troops thither ; but Ireland still occupied her old position, not as, according to the Act of Union, a component, sovereign part of the Empire, ...
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Anonymous (1883) The Story of the battle of Port Said : a chapter in the history of the future. London : Offices of "Engineering", 1883. A fictitious account of the "Battle of Port Said." set in June 1886, in which England and Germany fought as allies against the combined forces of Turkey, France and Russia. Told over six issues of Engineering in 1883. Engineering, vol. 36, 6 July 1883, pp. 1-3;Engineering, vol. 36, 13 July 1883, pp.27-28;Engineering, vol. 36, 20 July 1883, pp. 51-54;Engineering, vol. 36, 27 July 1883, pp. 80-84;Engineering, vol. 36, 3 August 1883, pp. 111-112; andEngineering, vol. 36, 10 August 1883, pp.133-1 NOTE. In giving this account of a naval battle supposed to be fought in the immediate future, I have endeavoured, as far as possible, to introduce the actual ships and their belongings which would probably be in the Mediterranean at the time of which my story treats, but I wish it to be understood that the views given are my own, and that if have used words or enunciated views as coming from any particular officer, as, for instance, the Commander-in-Chief of the Mediterranean fleet, flag captain, captain of the Hecla, &c., it is merely ...
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C. Forth (1883) The Surprise of the Channel Tunnel Little information about this other than a brief entry in Norman Longmate's (1991) Island Fortress: The Defence of Great Britian 1606-1945: 1883, saw the publication of C. Forth's The Surprise of the Channel Tunnel, the normal work of imaginative fiction, notable only for its ending. After the invader has finally been driven out an Act is passed making it high treason even to propose building a tunnel again. Map of proposed Channel Tunnel 1880 ...
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Albert Robida (1883) La Guerre au Vingtième Siècle A fantastical view of warfare in the 20C from the French illustrator Robida involving aircraft, tanks, chemical and biological weapons. Robida is said to have shown a penchant for satire even in his youth; by 1873, he had founded his own satirical journal, La Caricature. A decade later, he published the first of a trilogy of satirical, futuristic novels, The Twentieth Century (Le Vingtieme siecle), which portrayed everyday life in 1950s France. That book would be followed in 1887 by War in the Twentieth Century (La Guerre au Vingtieme siecle), and in 1891 by The Electric Life (La vie électrique), which was a sequel of sorts to The Twentieth Century, though it featured different characters. [Antulio J. Echevarria (2007) Imagining Future War: The West's Technological Revolution and Visions of Wars to Come, 1880-1914 ] Extract: The first half of the year 1945 had been particularly peaceful. Apart from the usual goings-on -- that is, apart from a small three-month civil war in the Danubian Empire, apart from an American offensive against our coast which was repulsed by our submarine fleet, and apart from a Chinese expedition which was smashed to pieces on the ...
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Anonymous (1884) How Glasgow Ceased to Flourish: a tale of 1890, Glasgow, Wilson & McCormick An argument against defence cuts that describes Russians warships invading the Clyde ...
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Anonymous [signed M.P.] (1885) The Great War and Disastrous Peace of 1885 A short story of Britain being blockaded and starved into submission. More than half a million die of starvation in London. Britain settles agreeing to pay £200M p.a. to the "military Powers". The verdict of the world was that our misfortunes proceeded from making ourselves too dependent on other countries for our food , from neglect of our Fleet, and from drifting along without a policy, and thus, by our vacillation, offending military Powers who would otherwise have been our friends ...
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Barillet-Lagargousse (1885) La guerre finale, histoire fantastique par Barillet-Lagargousse, ingénieur destructeur, membre de plusieurs sociétés philanthropiques et savantes. Barillet-Lagargousse's The Final War (1885), takes the European arms race of the late 19th century to its logical end: a terrifying deadlock due to the political and social paralysis caused by weapons sufficiently powerful to be seemingly unbeatable. Based on a then-new idea, The Final War is the first elaborate extrapolation of the strangely modern notion is that peace can only be achieved through ultimate war, and the first novel to flesh it out with abundant detail. [Publisher's Description of English translation by Brian Stableford (2014) The Final War] Full text (French) at http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k58190712/f5.image ...
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Posteritas (1885) The Siege of London, London, Wyman & Sons CHAPTER 1. ENGLAND's POLITICAL MISTAKES. —THE EGYPTIAN MUDDLE.— ALARMING SIGNS IN THE FOREIGN POLITICAL SKY. It is not our purpose here to enter fully into the series of extraordinary events which led up to the gigantic disaster, whereby the English nation was crushed into the dust, and the power and might of England all but utterly destroyed. A brief recapitulation is, however, necessary, In order that the reader may be able to fully comprehend the nature of the stupendous changes that were wrought in an astonishingly brief period. The events with which we have to deal lie too near our own time for one to write dispassionately or altogether impartially. We shall, nevertheless, endeavour to confine ourselves to truthfully recording the circumstances, and to disassociate that record from any display of bias. As is well known, the Conservatives had been swept from power by an outburst of popular feeling, due, in a very large measure, to the fervid declamation of the Opposition leader, Mr. Gladstone, during his Midlothian campaign - a campaign that is now historically known as "a Pilgrimage of Passion." The marvellous powers of oratory possessed by Mr ...
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Anonymous (1886) The Great Irish Rebellion of 1886. Retold by a Landlord. It is hardly surprising, then, that writers of the 1880s, fired by the growing nationalist sensibility, tried to anticipate the possible results of a breakaway from the United Kingdom. The twenty years before the reform of local government (1898) which gave Irish Catholics positions of power in the newly established county councils (the franchise in the British state had been extended gradually between 1832 and 1918) saw a real explosion of utopian novels projecting a different future under a national Irish government. Many of them were published anonymously, such as Irelands War! Parnell Victorious (1882), which advocates the policy of Home Rule party leader Charles Stewart Parnell (1846-1891), or In the Year One (A.D. 1888) of Home Rule (1886), which, drawing on the controversial Home Rule Bill of 1886, gives a fictitious account of future West Ireland under the new government. Other writings dealing with a similar theme include the anonymous The Battle of Moy or How Ireland Gained Her Independence 1892-1894 (1883) [and] The Great Irish Rebellion of 1886, Retold by a Landlord (1886)…..  [Ralph Pordzik, (2003) ,"Thinking about the Future": Ireland and the Irish Conflict in ...
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Anonymous (1886) Coming Wars - Great Events & End of This Age on April 11th, 1901 published by Christian Herald A reprint of a religious pamphlet first issued in 1881 and forecasting upheavals and wars in Europe coupled with forecasts of Armageddon in 1901. COMING WARS & GREAT EVENTS,AND NINE SIGNS OF THE APPROACHING FINAL CRISIS. Dissolution of the Turkish Empire into the Five Ancient Kingdoms of  GREECE, EGYPT, SYRIA, Thracian TURKEY and BULGARIA, which with BRITAIN (Separated from Ireland), FRANCE, SPAIN, ITALY, and AUSTRIA, will be formed into an Allied Confederacy of Ten Kingdoms, after Wars and Revolutions between 188B and 1891, Extending France to the Rhine, and adding to it Belgium, Luxemburg, Alsace, Lorraine, Rhenish Prussia, Switzerland, &c. - Subsequent rise of a Napoleon as King of Syria—His Seven Years' Covenant with the Jews on April 21, 1894—Resurrection and Translation of Saints, about March 5, 1896 - 1260 days' Great Tribulation and Napoleon's worldwide Persecution of Christians, Aug. 14-15, 1897 to Jan. 26, 1901— Descent of Christ at Armageddon on last day of Passover Week, April 11, 1901—Ensuing Millennium of 1000 years, &c. Facsimile available on JSTOR: http://www.jstor.org/stable/60214427 ...
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Jules Verne (1886) Robur the Conqueror [Robur-le-Conquérant] [aka. The Clipper of the Clouds] Although somewhat outside the scope of Invasion / Future War Literature the subject matter is highly relevant as a science-fiction writer's view on future warfare technology. It was followed by a sequel Master of the World (Maître du monde) in 1904. Summary [Wikipedia]: The story begins with strange lights and sounds, including blaring trumpet music, reported in the skies all over the world. The events are capped by the mysterious appearance of black flags with gold suns atop tall historic landmarks such as the Statue of Liberty in New York, the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt, and the Eiffel Tower in Paris. These events are all the work of the mysterious Robur (the specific epithet for English Oak, Quercus robur, and figuratively taken to mean "strength"), a brilliant inventor who intrudes on a meeting of a flight-enthusiast's club called the Weldon Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Members of the Weldon Institute are all firm believers that mankind shall master the skies using “lighter than air” craft, and that "heavier than air" craft such as airplanes and helicopters would be unfeasible. The institute has been constructing a giant ...
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Anonymous (1887) The Battle off Worthing: why the Invaders never got to Dorking As an example of how other writers picked over the dry bones of the Dorking a ninety-six page novella by an anonymous "Captain of the Royal Navy," titled The Battle Off Worthing: Why the Invaders Never Got To Dorking (1887), may be worth a brief summary. In his introduction the writer recalls how Chesney's fable, while condemned by the press as visionary and improbable, nevertheless had instilled in the populace '"a latent feeling of insecurity." It was that pamphlet which "first stirred the national pulse. Everybody read it, and everybody spoke of it." What the army colonel failed to take into account and the naval captain wished to show was the genius of the English race in nautical improvisation.   [Cecil D. Eby (1987), The Road to Armageddon: The Martial Spirit in English Popular Literature] Full text at: [https://archive.org/details/battleoffworthin00captuoft] ...
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William Laird Clowes (1887) The Great Naval War of 1887 Originally published anonymously. Attributed also to Alan Hughes Burgoyne [Charles Gannon (2003) Rumors of War, p.11]. A Future War novel about the coming naval war between Great Britain and France. THE GREAT NAVAL WAR OF 1887.  (St. James's Gazette.) I.-THE DISASTER AT SPITHEAD. At the beginning of March, 1887, the various difficulties which in the course of the previous four or five years had arisen between Great Britain and France were as far as they had ever been from a settlement. A British garrison still remained in Egypt, a French force still held the New Hebrides, and French and English fishermen still quarrelled in the Channel. In England the public had gradually grown accustomed to this condition of affairs; and though it was sometimes suggested that, with an accumulation of unadjusted differences, any sudden exasperating accident might drive the two nations into war, no heed was paid to the warning. The utter unreadiness of Great Britain to withstand the onslaught of a well-prepared Power like France was well known to all who knew anything of the matter at all. Seeing the very doubtful state of our foreign relations, some of ...
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Anonymous (1888) The Russia's Hope: Or Britannia No Longer Rules the Waves; Showing How the Muscovite Bear Got at the British Whale translated by Charles James Cooke with a preface by William Beatty-Kingston, London, Chapman and Hall Preface: FEW Englishmen, in all probability, realise how fervently the great nation to which they are proud to belong is envied and detested by another mighty nation, with which it is by no means impossible that they may be brought into violent collision before the close of the current century, if not earlier. We are not, as a rule, addicted to self-introspection, and the unknown Power vainly invoked by Robert Burns hashitherto omitted to bestow upon us the gift of seeing ourselves as others see us. The average Briton, although an instinctive dislike of "foreigners" is one of his congenital characteristics, seldom troubles himself with consideration touching feelings entertained towards him and his country by peoples differing from him in race and speech ; and it would perhaps surprise him greatly to be assured that he is by no means universally regarded with that affectionate admiration which, to do him justice, he unreservedly lavishes upon himself and all that belongs him. As a ...
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Hugh Oakeley Arnold-Forster (1888) In a Conning Tower; or, How I Took H.M.S. "Majestic" into Action. A Story of Modern Ironclad Warfare, Murray's Magazine Hugh Oakeley Arnold-Forster (1855 – 1909), was a British politician and writer. He notably served as Secretary of State for War from 1903 to 1905. From boyhood he had devoted himself to the close study of naval affairs and of warships. His love of the sea was insatiable, and he spent many a holiday cruising in a Thames barge, which he fitted out in quite homely fashion. In 1884 he inspired the famous articles on ' The Truth about the Navy ' (published by Mr. Stead in the 'Pall Mall Gazette'), which led to a large increase in the navy estimates under the Gladstone government and to endeavours of later governments to place the navy on a footing of adequate efficiency. In a forecast of a modern naval battle entitled ' In a Conning Tower ' (1888) he showed a technical knowledge remarkable in a civilian. [Wikisource]   ...
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Samuel Barton (1888) The battle of the Swash and the capture of Canada One of the first novels in the ‘future war’ genre, The Battle of the Swash focuses on what was known in the 1880s as the ‘Canadian Problem’. This was primarily a mercantile dispute deriving from Canada’s high tariffs on American goods. The Battle of the Swash is the response of a wealthy American businessman, angry at what he saw as Britain’s subversion of the free market. Though set in 1890, the story is narrated – by one Samuel Barton – in an imagined 1930. The detail of the horrors as the British navy is able to dominate the Atlantic seaboard, and finally to destroy New York City, is one of the strengths of the novel and makes good use of Barton’s familiarity with the sea. Though overlooked by modern scholars, The Battle of the Swash is an intelligent and perceptive tale and the first of its kind to recognize economic growth as a motivation for conflict.  [Pickering Chatto Publishers] Introduction: THE only apology which I offer for this authentic account of an event which (having occurred more than forty years ago), can scarcely be supposed to possess ...
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Lester, H. F. (1888) The Taking of Dover,  Bristol, J.W. Arrowsmith Russia and France defeat Germany and then staging a fake falling out to lull Britain into complacency they invade England. "The thing Governments most think about is, how to cut down the expenditure, which is the greatest blunder that can be made in the interests Of the country. It is simply the question of the existence Of the Empire, or the non-existence of it."  -  The Duke Of Cambridge, Commander-in-Chief.  "In times like the present, it behoves the people of England to know the whole truth in regard to their army and navy. All the great nations of Europe are armed to the teeth. On all sides the horizon foretells storms. That being so, we have continually to ask ourselves, 'Is the army as strong as it ought to be ?' Few Of those who know the facts will maintain that it is so." - Lord Wolseley.  "In the ports of France at this moment, and every day of the year, there is enough shipping to carry over 100,000 men to England without any preparation at all." - Lord Wolseley. Extract: You would be astonished if you read the ...
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Anon (1889) Bombardment of Scarbro' by the Russian Fleet in 1891, and Terrific Battle of Scalby Beck, and Other Stories More details awaited ...
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Anonymous (1889) England's Danger; or, Rifts Within the Lute. A Russian Plot THE MAGAZINES AT PORTSMOUTH. PRECISELY at a quarter past eight, in the evening of the following day, a single rocket was observed to shoot up from the vicinity of the Nelson monument, upon the Portsdown Hill, near Portsmouth. A moment afterwards a boat darted out from the shelter of Horsea Island, under which it had been lying, and shaped its course for the end of a small pier, upon the north side of Tipnor magazine. The oars were muffled at the row-locks, but, as the boat approached the pier head, the plash of oar-blades in the water attracted the attention of the sentry pacing the wharf, who immediately challenged its occupants. It was a dark cloudy night, and a stiff breeze was blowing from the south-west, the boat being invisible in the gloom. The magazine was situated at the extremity of a small promontory, stretching out into the harbour. It contained nearly one thousand tons of powder, and was protected by a strong resident guard, and sentries on both sides, who were visited periodically; a tell-tale clock being struck upon each occasion, which indicated the exact time at ...
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Robert Cromie (1889) For England's Sake, London, Frederick Warne The British with Indian support defeat the Russians in Afghanistan. For England's Sake by Robert Cromie, is published by Frederick Warne and Co.; and dedicated to Edwin Arnold. It deals with an exciting series of war incidents in Afghanistan, and is written in bright and dashing style. [Burnley Express 20th April 1889] Cromie published a follow up, The Next Crusade , in 1896 ...
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Danrit, E. (1889) La Guerre en Ballon The third book in Danrit's trilogy La Guerre de demain. Full text (in French) at: http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.$b598073;view=thumb;seq=1 ...
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Frank Richard Stockton (1889) The Great War Syndicate, New York, Dodd, Mead and Company. Later, when Stockton turned to novels, he continued to use sf themes occasionally, though his humorous style remained the most prominent feature. In The Great War Syndicate (1889) a naval Future War between the UK and America – set off by a renewal of American exceptionalist ire over the continued existence of Canada, and organized by a consortium of American entrepreneurs – is resolved when the British find arrayed against them various advanced Weapons, including invulnerable warships and a torpedo that travels at the speed of a cannon shell; the UK then surrenders. [SFE] Introduction: IN the spring of a certain year, not far from the close of the nineteenth century, when the political relations between the United States and Great Britain became so strained that careful observers on both sides of the Atlantic were forced to the belief that a serious break in these relations might be looked for at any time, the fishing schooner "Eliza Drum" sailed from a port in Maine for the banks of Newfoundland. It was in this year that a new system of protection for American fishing vessels had been ...
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Henry Grattan Donnelly (1890) The Stricken Nation Although written and published in the USA this book is included to show the opposite scenrio to most included on this site: in this case the British attack the USA. Despite Clarke's assertion that after the 1880s 'the United States did not have any major external enemy to serve as the focus for future war l" there do appear to be certain repeated enemies, such as the stories', British. Americans war against the UK in Samuel Rockwell Reed's The war of 1886, between the United States and Great Britain (1882), Samuel Barton's The Battle of the Swash; and The Capture of Canada ( 1888) and Henry Grattan Donnelly's The Stricken Nation (1890; written using the pseudonym 'Stochastic'). Fitting the future-war model established by 'The Battle of Dorking', in Stricken Nation the British enemy brings the USA's inadequate defences along the Great Lakes into relief for the American reader. Donnelly does not challenge America and England's shared membership of 'the Anglo-Saxon race' in his novel, but their ethnic rivalry appears intractable: the English cannot suppress their 'traditional envy and hatred'20 towards the United States. [Paul Williams (2011) Race, Ethnicity and Nuclear War: Representations of ...
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Admiral P. H. Colomb (1892) The War of 189-. London, William Heinemann. Such fears found powerful expression in a new and very popular genre of fictional writing: elaborate narratives predicting the outbreak and course of future wars. Seeking to entertain, to frighten, and to highlight the weaknesses of existing policy-making and strategic thought, literary, journalistic, and miItary expertise combined to construct evocative stories of conflicts yet to come. These stories proved an instant success with the public; the most popular sold ins of thousands of copies, raced through multiple editions, and were translated into numerous foreign Ianguages. As was intended, they acted as a powerful form of political advocacy. Starting with Lt.-Colonel George Chesney's short story "The Battle of Dorking" (1871), which foresaw a weak and complacent Britain defeated by an aggressive German state, and which prompted Gladstone to publicly denounce the alarmism that it catalyzed, the genre reached its most sophisticated form in a collaborative narrative detailing the "The War of 189-" (1892), where Britain ended up fighting Russia and France. The editor of the illustrated weekly Black and White introduced the latter story as an important political Intervention at a time of heightened alert. The air is full ...
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A.N. Seaforth (George Sydenham Clarke), The Last Great Naval War, 1892 A retrospective (supposedly written in 1930) looking back on an Anglo-French naval war in the 1890s. Preface: So many able pens have dealt with the last great naval war that an apology is needed for adding to the already copious literature of the subject. Some of the existing histories, such, for instance, as the excellent works of Admiral Colomb and Professor Laughton, are, however, perhaps too strictly professional for the general reader; while Professor Bryces National Federation deals mainly with constitutional questions. Other books, written for popular consumption, are too largely occupied with the many personal and dramatic aspects of the great struggle. I have endeavoured to steer a middle course between the two extremes, and, while not neglecting the human interest, I have striven to set forth the many great lessons of a war which has left an enduring mark upon the nation and the race. Thus this little work is necessarily a compilation; and to the many accomplished writers from whom I have freely borrowed, my grateful acknowledgments are offered. Their labours have rendered my humbler task possible. Brighton, 1 st June, 1930. Extract: In the early ...
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W. Laird Clowe (1893) The Captain of the "Mary Rose" - A Tale of To-morrow, London, W. Thacker & Co Review This is a " tale of to-morrow,"—i.e., of the next naval war. We find ourselves suddenly at war with France. Our neighbours, better prepared for eventualities than we are, strike the first blow with astounding promptitude, and the Mediterranean Fleet is practically destroyed. Disaster after disaster falls on the naval defences of England. How these reverses are redeemed, we must leave our readers to discover for themselves from Mr. Laird Clowes's pages. We need not say more than that the fighting is terrifically destructive—as, indeed, all probabilities and such experience as we have had would lead us to expect—and that it is described in an effective way, and with much verisimilitude. A love-story is interwoven with the plot, but does not unnecessarily distract the attention. [Spectator 29 April 1893]  Biographical Note: Sir William Laird Clowes (1 February 1856 – 14 August 1905) was a British journalist and historian whose principal work was The Royal Navy, A History from the Earliest Times to 1900, a text that is still in print. He also wrote numerous technical pieces on naval technology ...
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E. Douglas Fawcett (1893) Hartmann The Anarchist, London, Edward Arnold. Illustrated by F.T. Jane. The plot centers around Mr Stanley, a young moneyed gentleman who aims to stand for election as part of the Labour party in the early 20th century. Through his associations with many of London's most prominent socialists and anarchists, he encounters and befriends Rudolph Hartmann and 'goes along' with Hartmann's plan to attack London using his airship The Attila. [Wikipedia] Hartmann the Anarchist, originally published in 1892, was written by Edward Douglas Fawcett when he was 17 years old. After being out of print for 100 years, it was republished in 2010. Rudolph Hartmann is an anarchist who is presumed dead after a botched attack on the Westminster Bridge. In this book, the plot centers around Mr. Stanley, a local socialist politician who, through associations with many of London’s most prominent socialists and anarchists, learns that Hartmann is still alive and ends up riding with Hartmann’s crew on the Attila as they plan to attack civilization. [Airships, Anarchists & Anachronisms] Full text at: https://archive.org/details/hartmannanarchi00fawcgoog ...
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A Gladstonian M.P. (1893) The Great Betrayal: or, The Invasion of East Anglia PREFACE. SLIGHTLY modifying the proverb, "Si non e veri ben trovato" it may be said of this little sketch that, if not true, it is likely to become so. Given a certain set of causes, corresponding effects may be fairly anticipated ; and upon such a basis the present writer, in 1884, ventured to foretell precisely the course Mr. Gladstone would take in Egypt, and the disaster that would ensue. The late Lord Iddesleigh, writing to the author, then expressed the fear that his predictions would prove "an owre true tale;" and they were fulfilled almost to the letter. In this instance no one desires more earnestly than the augur that events may falsify his prophecy. The slender defences of our Eastern seaboard—an item not omitted from the calculations of Continental strategists—render not inappropriate the selection of East Anglia as the theatre of war. With regard to the strange tragedy that closes the Spy's career,such an incident has actually occurred on active service. Britain faces invasion by France and Russia aided by an Irish factions following Britain's abandonment of Ireland. Russia seizes India and together with the ...
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George Griffith (1893) The Angel of the Revolution: A Tale of the Coming Terror, London, Tower Publishing Company The Angel of the Revolution: A Tale of the Coming Terror (1893) is a science fiction novel by English writer George Griffith. It was his first published novel and remains his most famous work. It was first published in Pearson's Weekly and was prompted by the success of The Great War of 1892 in Black and White magazine, which was itself inspired by The Battle of Dorking. A lurid mix of Jules Verne's futuristic air warfare fantasies, the utopian visions of News from Nowhere and the future war invasion literature of Chesney and his imitators, it told the tale of a group of terrorists who conquer the world through airship warfare. Led by a crippled, brilliant Russian Jew and his daughter, the 'angel' Natasha, 'The Brotherhood of Freedom' establish a 'pax aeronautica' over the earth after a young inventor masters the technology of flight in 1903. The hero falls in love with Natasha and joins in her war against society in general and the Russian Czar in particular it is characterised by what Michael Moorcock called its 'controlled imaginative flight', essentially socialist ...
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1894, Eardley-Wilmot, S.M. Sir , The Next Naval War  ...
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George Griffith (1894) Olga Romanoff / The Syren of the Skies first published as Pearson's Weekly. The novel continues (from The Angel of the Revolution) the tale of a worldwide brotherhood of anarchists fighting the world armed with fantastical airships, ending on an apocalyptic note as a comet smashes into the earth. Full text at: http://www.forgottenfutures.com/game/ff7/olga.htm ...
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William Le Queux (1894) The Great War in England in 1897 Le Queux's novel depicts Britain being invaded by coalition forces led by France and Russia, who make several early advances, but the brave English patriots fight on and eventually manage to turn the tide, especially after Germany enters the war on the side of the British. By the end of the story, the invasion goes the other way as the victors divide the spoils: Britain seizes Algeria and Russian Central Asia, thus decisively winning The Great Game, while Germany annexes more of mainland France in addition to Alsace-Lorraine, thus leaving the enemies crushed and both the British and German empires the dominant forces of Europe. In historical perspective, the book is interesting in depicting the precise reverse of the alliances of the actual World War I which broke out two decades after its publication: France and Russia, which were to become Britain's World War I allies, are depicted as its implacable cruel foes, while Imperial Germany is the gallant ally coming to Britain's aid at the nick of time. Conversely, in 1906, Le Queux wrote The Invasion of 1910, which featured Germany invading and occupying Britain and stressed the ...
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The Earl of Mayo (1894) The War Cruise of the Aries, Illustrated by William Boulton, Dublin, Edward Ponsonby CHAPTER 1. HISTORY OF THE WAR. In 18__  England was at war with France; and before coming to the history of the cruise of the 'Aries,' it is proposed to recount, as briefly as possible, the events which led to that short, but terrible struggle. It was a well-known fact that France was intriguing with the ruler of Egypt against England. A plot was discovered; the conspirators had arranged a general rising; an attempt to fire the barracks occupied by the British troops was to be made. The recent considerable reduction in the numbers of the army of occupation made by the Radical Government was greatly in favour of the success Of the conspiracy. The plot, however, did not escape the vigilance of our Minister. He promptly had the chief of the Egyptian conspirators arrested; martial law was at once proclaimed in Cairo and Alexandria, and several leading French officials implicated in the rising were confined to their official residences by the military authorities. From papers found on some Of these gentlemen it was clear that the plot did not originate entirely ...
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Eastwick, J. (1895) The New Centurion - A Tale of Automatic War, London, Longmans, Green and Co. TO THE READER Many years ago the writer of these pages first conceived the idea that, as the heavy guns of a modern ironclad were, and must ever be, her decisive weapons, the chief thing to be attended to was to increase their rate and precision of fire, und that the power requisite for this purpose could readily and economically be obtained from the guns' recoil. Further, it occurred to him that this might enable the crew to be withdrawn from the vicinity of the guns, and the weight of the necessary armour protection to be greatly reduced. Ideas of this sort were taken up at intervals as the amusement of idle hours, but it was long before they assumed any definite shape, and longer still before any notion was entertained of bringing them to any serious or practical conclusion. Meanwhile a great development took place in quick-firing guns of smaller calibre, a development which has not as yet been attended by any corresponding development in the means of protecting the men working them. The urgent need of some such protection was forcibly ...
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Hamilton Edwards (1895) Britain in Arms, published in the story paper Pluck and in 1897 in Boys' Friend. For British boys, the First World War started, not in 1914 but in 1895 when, according to the Hamilton Edwards serial, "Britain in Arms," published in the story paper Pluck, a coalition of Continental powers, envious of empire, attempted to invade the British Isles. Despite some tense moments, the Royal Navy eventually succeeds in destroying the enemy fleet, while the British army under the command of the nation's most popular soldier, Lord Roberts of Khandahar, invades the Continent and deals the aggressors a lesson they will long remember. "Britain in Arms" offered a new theme for the popular war stories written specifically for boys and young men: a tale of the great war to come, something new and excitingly different from the familiar cycle of stories inspired by the little wars of empire. [Michael Paris (2004) Over The Top, p.1] The enemy was not always Germany. In 1897 Hamilton Edwards wrote in his Boys' Friend a serial, 'Britain In Arms', described as: 'The story of how Great Britain fought the world in 1899', showing what Britons can do for their Queen and ...
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T. Mullet Ellis (1895) Zalma The eponymous female villain in Zalma (1895) by T Mullett Ellis seeks to continue her father’s efforts to destroy the nobility of Europe and plans to release balloons laden with anthrax over the capital cities, but is thankfully thwarted before she can carry out her plan. [Mike Ashley, The Fear of Invasion, British Library, http://www.bl.uk/romantics-and-victorians/articles/the-fear-of-invasion] Following quickly on the heels of Olga Romanoff, and overtly referencing The Angel of the Revolution, was T. Mullett Ellis' Zalma (1895), in which Zalma von der Pahlen, daughter of the leader of the international nihilist and anarchist movements and, after his death, the leader herself of those movements, plots to spark a socialist revolution by launching a fleet of anthrax-infested balloons into the capitals of Europe. [Jess Nevins (2011) From Alexander Pope to "Splice": a Short History of the Female Mad Scientist, http://io9.com/5794436/from-alexander-pope-to-splice-a-short-history-of-the-female-mad-scientist] This article outlines the appearance of biological entities as agents of terrorism in late nineteenth century literature; specifically the use of anthrax in "Zalma" - an 1895 novel by the English author Thomas Mullett Ellis. This is one of the very earliest accounts, in either fiction or non-fiction, of the use of such an entity in ...
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George Griffith (1895) The Outlaws of the Air, London, Tower Publishing   [Serialised in Short Stories in September 1894 - May 1895] With that he sent the Vengeur across the Embankment and the Strand, and placed her over the Law Courts. Then bomb after bomb crashed in quick succession through different parts of the gabled roof of the great building, until it was on fire in a dozen places at once, and there was such a stampede and haste to get out as the law's delay had never known before. That afternoon and evening neither flag was hoisted nor light kindled on the Clock Tower of Westminster, for the universal panic had now spread to all ranks of society, and neither Lords nor Commons felt inclined to run the risk of a sitting in a building whose conspicuous position and character marked it out for almost certain destruction at the hands of the enemy of mankind who, for the time being, held London at his mercy. Full text at: http://www.forgottenfutures.com/game/ff9/outlaw.htm ...
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Fred T. Jane (1895), Blake of the "Rattlesake" or The Man Who Saved England - A story of Torpedo Warfare in 189- , London, Tower Publishing Co Ltd Preface: I have not sought or attempted in this story to settle any vexed questions of theories or tactics; such matters are no concern of mine. I have tried instead to work into story-form some of the romance that clings thick around the torpedo service, to set forth some of the poetry latent in torpedo oraft. Any other aims I may have had in view are, I trust, sufficiently obvious in the text to need no mention here. It has been my good fortune to have had a good share of experience in torpedo craft during the naval manoeuvres of the last few years, and on incidents thus participated in I have based this tale. Manoeuvres, of course, are not war; but, in the torpedo service at any rate, they are carried out with as much approximation to the actual thing as can be managed. For the rest, I have sought to work out my results from what is held by those who, in the event of war, will have to stake ...
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Jules Lermina (1895) La Bataille de Strasbourg [The Battle of Strasbourg]  An early novel on the theme of the "yellow peril". Set in the 1920s, though written in the 1890s, Jules Lermina's The Battle of Strasbourg is credited by historians of futuristic fiction with launching the literary genre known as "yellow peril" fiction. It is also one of the first "immersive fantasies" to be completely set in the future and the earliest to do so straightforwardly. From Paris to Peking, from Persia to St. Petersburg, the Chinese armies are marching toward Europe, moved by their deep resentment against the West. The Battle of Strasbourg is one of the first future war stories to use the notion that a worldwide military conflict was not only feasible, thanks to the development of an embryonic global civilization, but inevitable as a natural repercussion of the West's concerted policies of colonization and imperialism. [Publisher's Description for English translation by Brian Stableford] Fascimile at: http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k64067f/f5.image (vol. 1) and http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k64068s/f5.image (vol. 2) ...
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Maurice Loir (1895) Naval Battles of the Future Maurice Loir's (1895) Naval Battles of the Future takes the form of a series of journal entries by a perceptive and philosophical naval officer aboard a French vessel engaged in dreadnought warfare in the Mediterranean. It is a sobering reflection on patriotism, solidarity, and ambition, and a reminder of the human element in war-future, final, or otherwise. [Publisher's Description of English translation by Brian Stableford (2014) Naval Battles of the Future in The Final War ] ...
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Captain Charles Vernon Anson, R.N. (1896) The Great Anglo-American War of 1900 Needs research - Britain defeated by the USA. From SFE: C.V. Anson (1846-1905) UK writer, in the Royal Navy 1859-1896. His Future War tale, The Great Anglo-American War of 1900 (1896), warrants modest interest for the worldwide scope of the conflict and for the UK's destruction of San Francisco, which inspires an inventive American response and the surrender of Canada. For verisimilitude, the tale should perhaps have been set several years further into the future. [http://www.sf-encyclopedia.com/entry/anson_captain] From www.findagrave.com: Royal Navy Captain, (1846-1905) Commander Coast Guard Station at Ramsgate. U.D.C. Councillor for Lower Teddington Ward. Lived at Yarrow Lodge, Teddington (1901-05) ...
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Francis G. Burton (1896), The Naval Engineer And The Command Of The Sea: A Story Of Naval Administration, Manchester, The Technical Publishing Company Ltd PREFACE We are so accustomed to think ourselves invincible at sea, if not on land; we glory so much in recollection of the victories of Hawkins, Drake, Rodney, Howe, Jarvis, Duncan, and Nelson; we are so proud of our majestic battleships and their unequalled crews, that we are apt to overlook the great change which has resulted from the introduction of steam as a motive power. We have, in the evolution of naval architecture, abandoned our tapering masts and spreading sails, and substituted for them paddles or screws; we have forsaken the equipment of the frigate, and reverted to one analogous to the old galley sweeps: we have discarded the sailing master for the gang driver, only that the slaves are now the steam boilers, and their driver the engineer, with his hand on the throttle. But just as in olden times, first the gang driver, and after the sailing master, were most necessary for the navigation of the galley or frigate, so in present days the engineer, down in the depths of her hold, is ...
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Robert Cromie (1896) The Next Crusade, London, Hutchinson & Co. A follow up to For England's Sake. Britain and Austria, with Germany's help, defeat the Russians and Turks ...
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1896, Tracy, L. , The Final War Louis Tracy (1896) The Final War THE BALL AT THE EMBASSY The month of May in Paris, if the elements be reasonably propitious, is a perfectly delightful period, and May Day of 1898 heralded in the promise of a gracious summer. The French capital was more than ordinarily full of visitors, and life in the world of fashion was like the changeful scenes of a ballet divertissement. Americans were there 'from Chicago and New York, spending millions made in packing pork', Russian notabilities abounded, and Germans, the male element vastly predominating, were in such numbers that the wonted supply of lager beer fell short in the cafés. A mad whirl of gaiety and light-heartedness filled the waking hours of every class of society. This social abandonment was, if possible, accentuated by a species of political electricity that permeated the air, and of which all men were dimly conscious. The new Ministry in France had taken up and developed the policy of colonial expansion given effect to by their predecessors, and a singular rapprochement with Germany was vaguely supposed to have contributed in a very remarkable way to the furtherance of French ambition. Both ...
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Anonymous (1897) The Back Door Serialised in The China Mail  30 September - 8 October 1897  (Note: other sources give it as 9-16th October) The Back Door was an anonymous work of invasion literature serialised in Hong Kong newspaper The China Mail from 30 September through 8 October 1897. The work, written in the form of a historical account, describes an imagined Russian and French landing at Hong Kong's Deep Water Bay, followed by shelling of Victoria Peak, a sea battle in the Sulphur Channel between Hong Kong Island and Green Island, and a last stand at Stonecutters Island in which British forces were decisively defeated. The story was intended as a criticism of the lack of British funding for the defence of Hong Kong; fears of invasion were driven by French expansionism in Southeast Asia and increasing Russian influence in Manchuria. [Wikipedia] The presence of such Russian operatives in Hong Kong was symptomatic of the constantly expanding Tsarist interest in the region, which alarmed both Britain and Japan, as did the Franco-Russian alliance concluded in 1893. One symptom of such apprehensions was the serialized publication, between October 9—16, 1897, in the Hong Kong newspaper The China Mail of "The ...
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Charles Gleig (1897) When All Men Starve - Showing How England Hazarded Her Naval Supremacy, And the Horrors Which Followed the Interruption of Her Food Supply, London & New York, John Lane The Boer War escalates into an Anglo-German war which is then joined by France and Russia. The French journals especially indulged in most bitter invective against England, declaiming violently against our aggressive policy in Africa and the injustice of our quarrel with the Transvaal. The note of hostility found echo in the reptile press of St. Petersburg, and once more the old Egyptian grievance was exhumed, and furnished material for venomous journalistic attack. All this was somewhat disquieting, and the fluctuations of the Stock Exchange, the fall in Colonial stocks, created uneasiness in the City. Already the collapse of our trade with Germany had resulted in the closing of many great business houses, the bankruptcy of others, the discharge of thousands of Englishmen wholly dependent upon a weekly wage. This was, of course, inevitable, as, prior to the war, our exports to Germany were valued at thirty millions sterling and our imports from the enemy at twenty- seven millions. The immediate suspension of the trade could not fail ...
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George Griffith (1897) Briton or Boer? A Tale of the Fight for Africa, F.W. White, London Full text at: http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.hnnq4v ...
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Kenneth Mackay (1897) The yellow wave : a romance of the Asiatic invasion of Australia, London, Richard Bentley & Son In 1885, while at Mittagong, Mackay raised a volunteer cavalry troop called the West Camden Light Horse and was appointed captain in command. Shortly afterwards he returned to the family property to assist his ageing father. He spent his quieter moments writing short stories and ballads. Several were published in newspapers and popular journals before his first book, Stirrup Jingles (1887). Similar publications in Sydney, A Bush Idyll (1888) and Songs of a Sunlit Land (1908), followed. He also wrote the novels, Out-back (London, 1893) and The Yellow Wave (1895), which imagined a Chinese invasion of Australia. [Australian Dictionary of Biography - http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/mackay-james-alexander-kenneth-7379] Major-General James Alexander Kenneth Mackay CB, OBE, VD (5 June 1859 – 16 November 1935) was an Australian politician. Born at Wallendenbeen Station near Cootamundra to pastoralist Alexander Mackay and Annie Mackenzie, he attended Camden College and Sydney Grammar School before farming at his father's property. In 1885 he joined the military volunteers and raised the West Camden Light Horse; he was a commissioned as a captain in 1886. He published three books of poetry and two ...
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John Henry Palmer (1897) The Invasion of New York: Or How Hawaii was Annexed Dated 4 July 1897, Palmer's book is primarily an intervention in the Congressional debate, then in progress, over the annexation of Hawai'i. Palmer backs a policy of aggressive imperial expansion, seeing possession of Hawai'i as a key element in an incipient struggle with Japan for control of the Pacific. His distinction is to be among the first to identify the Japanese as a major imperial competitor, as his novel narrates a surprise takeover of Hawai'i by the Japanese, followed by their invasion of San Francisco. [John Rieder (2008) Colonialism and the Emergence of Science Fiction] This chapter examines John Henry Palmer's The Invasion of New York, or, How Hawaii Was Annexed. It argues that the significance of Palmer's book is that it demonstrates the remarkable instability of the opposition between the political and the fantastic in the burgeoning sphere of mass circulated print in the late 1890s. The point is not whether Palmer's fantasies had an impact on the annexation debate, but rather that they had their origin in the publicity generated by the debate, and that the debate itself was immersed in an emerging mass-cultural ...
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J. N. Hampson (1898) Great Britain vs. France and Russia. National Review, Vol. 31, June 1898, London, Allen & Co. An award wining essay sponsored by the National Review and the Navy League to identify Britain's weaknesses in the case of war. THE student of history can hardly fail to be struck by a certain resemblance between the general political situation at the time of the outbreak of the late war with France and Russia, and that which obtained in 1778 when, during the American War of Independence, France made war against England, and was in the following year joined by Spain. The addition of Holland to our adversaries in the earlier war, in 1780, need not be taken into account, as that country was forced into war by England for her own purposes, and added nothing to the strength of the Allies. The resemblance between the general course of events in the two wars, and between the results, is less marked than that between the antecedent situations; but in each case the war was indecisive, England holding her own on the sea, though it needed the exertion of her utmost strength to enable her to do so. It is ...
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J. Morris (1898) What Will Japan Do? A Forecast. A forecast of war between Japan and Russia. Full text at: https://archive.org/details/whatwilljapando00morrgoog Conclusion to the story: In the endeavour to provide an answer to the query — " What will Japan do ? " it has been hoped that some justification exists for the assumption that we are as a nation directly interested in her progress in naval and military power. We cannot ignore the fact that her alliance would be of the utmost value to any nation which has ambitions to realize in the Far East, and strong as we are ourselves on the seas, there will at all times be satisfaction in the thought that this rising empire beyond India is at one with us in the main principles of our policy, and equally as determined as ourselves to promote the freedom of commercial intercourse. There is sympathy between Japan and Britain, independently of formal treaties, which it is highly probable will increase rather than diminish as time passes, for it is founded upon mutual respect for national prowess and a like indisposition to submit to coercion in any form. If Japan does not become the avowed ally of ...
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E. Phillips Oppenheim (1898) The Mysterious Mr Sabin It was largely the success of his first spy novel, Mysterious Mr. Sabin (1898), that enabled Oppenheim to relinquish control over the family business and devote himself to a full-time writing career. "The first of my long stories dealing with that shadowy and mysterious world of diplomacy," wrote Oppenheim in his memoirs, the novel revolves around a plot to overthrow the Third French Republic. Its central figure, Monsieur Sabin, is none other than the Duc de Souspennier, a royalist nurturing ambitions of being a new Richelieu. The stratagem he devises for ridding France of the Republic is a German invasion, promised by Berlin provided that he deliver detailed plans of British coastal defences to the Germans. [David Stafford (1991) The Silent Game: The Real World of Imaginary Spies] Full text available at: http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/35661 There is a discussion of the merits, or otherwise, of The Mysterious Mr Sabin and other novels by Oppenheim in LeRoy L. Panek (1981) Special Branch : the British Spy Novel, 1890-1980 ...
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M. P. Shiel (1899) The Yellow Danger, London, Grant Richards Not all invasion threats were purported to come from the Germans, the French or from Anarchists: in M.P. Shiel's Yellow Danger it is an army of Chinese who invade Europe. A contemporary review gives a good overview of the plot and style. Full text available at: https://archive.org/details/yellowdanger00shierich The afterword from a 1998 edition of the book can be found at: http://www.alangullette.com/lit/shiel/essays/YellowDangerRevisited.htm An additional reviews can be found at: http://mysteryfile.com/blog/?p=1841 ...
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Stanley Waterloo (1898) Armageddon In the utopia and future war story Armageddon, the United States and its ally, the United Kingdom, are fighting a joint Russian—Southern European alliance over trade routes in the Pacific. As war clouds gather, the American scientist-inventor David Appleton volunteers his bomber dirigible, the Wild Goose, to the American-Anglo cause. In a great sea battle, Appleton uses the Wild Goose to drop a bomb on the Russians' lead ship. The ship is pulverized instantaneously. This act, which brings the conflict to an immediate end, changes forever the nature of relations among nations. Accepting their military superiority as both divinely ordained and illimitable, the Americans proclaim: "We are the conquerors . . . we consider ourselves the approved of Providence in directing most of the affairs of the world." As the story concludes, Appleton is hard at work building a new and better bomber, which he calls The Valkyr. It is his fervent hope and belief that this great bomber dirigible will never be used, since all now recognize that "war is suicide." [Susan M. Matarese (2001) American Foreign Policy and the Utopian Imagination] Full text at: https://archive.org/details/armageddonatale00wategoog ...
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H.W. Wilson and A. White (1898), When War breaks out; being a selection from the letters of Andrew D. Jones, the London correspondent of "Calner's weekly," during the war between Great Britain and the allied powers of France and Russia, September 21st, 1900, to January 1st, 1901, London, Harper and Brothers [Book Review - Spectator 21st May 1898] When War Breaks Out. By H. W. Wilson and Arnold White. London: Harper and Brothers. The book which bears the above title consists of a series of " newsy " letters from the London correspondent of Calner's Weekly, New York, written during the war between Great Britain and the Allied Powers of France and Russia, September 21st, 1900, to January 1st, 1901. The letters are cleverly done, the authors having caught the American news- paper style to a nicety. They begin by the announcement that on September 20th all the telegraph cables connecting England with the Continent have been cut. On the 21st war is declared, and the Channel Fleet leaves Portland for Gibraltar. On the 23rd the French cruiser Dupuy de Lome' lands a party on Valencia Island, cuts the shore ends of the Atlantic cables, and destroys the telegraph station ...
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Headon Hill [Francis Edward Grainger] (1899) The Spies of the Wight.  London, C. Arthur Pearson A year later [1899] Headon Hill used this formula in The Spies of the Wight, the first full-length account of German agents at work in the United Kingdom and an early indication that Germany had taken the place of France as the enemy in tomorrow's war. The notorious Kruger telegram of 3 January 1896 was read as a hostile act against the United Kingdom; and the new German fleet, sanctioned by the -Navy Law of April 1898, suggested to many that the two nations had started a collision course. Feelings of anger and contempt, once reserved for the French, are now concentrated on 'certain dirty little games of the German Emperor himself', as the hero is briefed for his secret mission. [I.F. Clarke (1997, The Great War with Germany, 1890-1914, p. 81] Extract: A SECRET MISSION It was half-past six on a sweltering July afternoon, and the work of the day was nearly finished in the office of the Evening Argus. As I put my foot on the private spiral iron staircase that runs from the machine-room in the basement to the general offices, thence ...
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Stevenson, P. L. (1899), How The Jubilee Fleet Escaped Destruction and the Battle of Ushant: Or, Two Episodes in the Career of a Naval Officer. Illustrated by F.T. Jane PREFACE. DEAR R_____ I have already sent you various MSS. dealing with the career of our mutual friend the late lamented Captain John Marling, R.N., and his services to this country in the late great war, the echoes of which have hardly yet died away. I have endeavoured to show how the existence of the secret coalition between the three Powers, Russia, Germany, and France, against Great Britain, was revealed to our Government, while our knowledge of the Great Plot remained unknown to the conspirators, and how, thanks to this ignorance on their part, Great Britain was able to foil the Allies at all points. Beginning with Marling's secret mission to Italy to secure the adhesion of that Power to our cause, I have gone on to describe at length the various episodes in the gigantic struggle which followed; such as the " Battle of Asinara Bay," where the French Reserve Squadron, from Toulon, seeking to overwhelm Lord Charles Carysfort's detachment of the Mediterranean Fleet, was itself overwhelmed and destroyed by ...
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F.M. Allen [pseud. of Edmund Downey] (1900) London's Peril A plan by the French to invade through a Channel Tunnel. "Then it is understood. The secret which I possess, and which I desire to sell," said M. Dupont, "is known to very few, and to nobody else, in all human probability, who could or would impart it to your Government. If we come to terms, my life will not, it is possible, be a very valuable asset. Yet, I persuade myself that my countrymen will hereafter see that I acted in their interests. I am ready to disclose my secret to your lordship, and the price I shall ask will at least convince you that I consider my information to be, as I have already described it in my letters, the most important ever offered to the English Government." "I am afraid," observed his lordship, " that you are somewhat slow in coming to the point. With what, or whom, is your secret concerned ? " " The seizure of London by France," said M. Dupont. Full text at: https://openlibrary.org/books/OL7249407M/London%27s_peril ...
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John Buchan (1900) The Half-Hearted A tale of conflict between Britain and Russia in North West India. You must remember that Russia is the step-daughter of the East. The people are Northern in the truest sense, but they have a little of Eastern superstition. A rational, sentimental people live in towns or market-gardens, like your English country, but great lonely plains aad forests somehow do not agree with that sort of creed. That slow people can still believe freshly a Qd simply, and some day when the leader arrives ttey will push beyond their boundaries and sweep down on Western Europe, as their ancestors did thirteen hundred years ago ...
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Duluth Evening Herald - 20 November 1900 ...
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Karl Eisenhart (1900) Die Abrechnung mit England (The Reckoning with England) According to one German writer, Karl Eisenhart, the Great War began on the grey morning of a nameless day in an unknown month when swift German cruisers steamed out from North Sea ports. Their task, as Eisenhart explained in Die Abrechnung mit England in 1900, was to destroy British commerce on the high seas—the indispensable preliminary to the final defeat of the United Kingdom. [I.F. Clarke (1965) The Shape of Wars to Come, History Today, Volume: 15 Issue: 2 1965] Full text (in German) at: https://archive.org/details/dieabrechnungmi00eisegoog ...
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Rudyard Kipling (1900) Kim - McClure's Magazine (December 1900 to October 1901), Cassell's Magazine (January to November 1901) & Macmillan & Co. Ltd (October 1901) Although not in the mainstream Invasion Scare / Espionage genre Kim deserves a place as a prototypical spy story linked in to British imperial attitudes. The story unfolds against the backdrop of The Great Game, the political conflict between Russia and Britain in Central Asia. It is set after the Second Afghan War which ended in 1881, but before the Third, probably in the period 1893 to 1898 .... After three years of schooling, Kim is given a government appointment so that he can begin his role in the Great Game. Before this appointment begins however, he is granted time to take a much-deserved break. Kim rejoins the lama and at the behest of Kim's superior, Hurree Chunder Mookherjee, they make a trip to the Himalayas. Here the espionage and spiritual threads of the story collide, with the lama unwittingly falling into conflict with Russian intelligence agents. Kim obtains maps, papers, and other important items from the Russians working to undermine British control of the region. Mookherjee befriends the Russians under cover, acting as a ...
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Colonel F.N. Maude (1900) The New Battle of Dorking In 1900... Colonel Maude described the initial success of a French invasion in The new Battle of Dorking. He planned his imaginary war on the fact that, “there are three months in every year—July, August, September—during which the French Army is fit for immediate warfare. And every year during these months there is a constantly recurrent probability of a surprise raid on London by the 120,000 men whom they could without difficulty put on board ship, land in England, and march to within a dozen miles of London in less than three days from the receipt of the order to move.” [I.F. Clarke (1965) The Shape of Wars to Come, History Today Vol. 15 Issue 2] ...
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Oshikawa Shunro (1900) Kaitei gunkan (The Submarine Battleship) (aka. The Undersea Battleship or The Underwater Battleship) Invasion literature had its impact also in Japan, at the time undergoing a fast process of modernization. Shunrō Oshikawa, a pioneer of Japanese science fiction and adventure stories (genres unknown in Japan until a few years earlier), published around the start of the 20th century the best-seller Kaitō Bōken Kidan: Kaitei Gunkan ("Undersea Battleship"): the story of an armoured, ram-armed submarine involved in a future history of war between Japan and Russia. The novel reflected the imperialist ambitions of Japan at the time, and foreshadowed the Russo-Japanese War that followed a few years later, in 1904. When the actual war with Russia broke out, Oshikawa covered it as a journalist while also continuing to publish further volumes of fiction depicting Japanese imperial exploits set in the Pacific and Indian Ocean – which also proved an enormous success with the Japanese public. In a later career as a magazine editor, he also encouraged the writing of more fiction in the same vein by other Japanese authors. [Wikipedia] Into this growing and profitable field stepped a young Oshikawa Shunro with a new adventure story, modeled on ...
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Anonymous (1901) The Sack of London in the Great French War of 1901,  F.V. White & Company In fact, one strain of the genre—the blockade narrative (of which The Sack of London is a sample) - is specifically tailored to address concerns over the potential consequences of the fact that the workshop of the world did not produce sufficient quantities of its own food. [Matin, A. Michael (1999) "The Hun Is at the Gate!": Historicizing Kipling's Militaristic Rhetoric, from the Imperial Periphery to the National Center, Studies in the Novel, Winter 1999] Until the early years of the twentieth century, British writers generally selected France as the principal enemy; and most of the writers agreed with the author of The Sack of London in the Great French War of 1901 that French hostility was a matter of pure envy: "envy of England's great Empire, envy at her freedom, envy at the stability of her Government, of her settled monarchy, and of her beloved Queen." [I.F. Clarke (1965) "The Shape of Wars to Come", History Today, Vol. 15, Issue 2] ...
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Captain William Elliot Cairnes (1901) The Coming Waterloo Review in the Spectator 26th Jan 1901: Captain Cairnes .....has ... given us a very engrossing as well as plausible picture of the next great war. The time is in the immediate future—to be exact, the year 1903—France and Russia are ranged against England, Germany, and Austria, and although the British Fleet has asserted its undisputed supremacy at an early stage of the war, the conflict lingers on until after a series of feints a British expeditionary force succeeds in landing in the neighbourhood of Boulogne. The narrative deals with the brief campaign which culminates in the junction of the British troops with the German Army of the North. Extract from the novel: Thus when Germany joined in the fray the bulk of the French forces were not in the best position for meeting an invasion from the east, though that frontier was guarded by several army-corps spread out along it like beads on a string, from which army- corps the cavalry were furnished which made the futile attempt, already alluded to, to interfere with the German mobilization. However, as may be imagined, the French lost no time in turning to meet ...
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Capitaine Danrit [E.A. Driant] (1901) La guerre fatale: France-Angleterre  In 1888 Driant began writing his first guerre imaginaire ("imaginary war") novel, which he was to publish using the pseudonym "Capitaine Danrit". This was La Guerre de demain ("The War of Tomorrow"), comprising three stories which told the tale of: La Guerre en forteresse ("Fortress Warfare"), La Guerre en rase campagne ("War in Open Country"), and La Guerre en ballon ("Balloon Warfare"). The action begins with La Guerre en fortresse, as reports arrive of a surprise German attack upon France. Driant gave his readers heroic episodes, great victories over the Germans, and in the 1192 pages of his Guerre fatale: France-Angleterre ("The Fatal War: France-England", 1902), the total defeat of the British by the French. [Wikipedia] In La guerre fatale: France-Angleterre the French military writer, Capitaine Danrit, described a swift invasion and conquest of the United Kingdom. With a band playing Sidi Brahim and to the cry of En avant! la garde du drapeau, the men of a crack Chasseur regiment storm ashore at Deal. The rest of the tale goes off with the enviable celerity of a staff exercise. The British defence crumbles before the ferocity of the French attacks ...
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Eugene Demolder (1901) L’Agonie d’Albion Tells the story of the defeat and fall of the British Empire. Full text (in French) https://archive.org/stream/lagoniedalbion00demo#page/n9/mode/2up ...
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George Griffith (1901) The Raid of Le Vengeur, Pearson's Magazine - February 1901 Chapter I.--THE DREAM OF CAPTAIN FLAUBERT.  It was the third morning after the naval manoeuvres at Cherbourg, and since their conclusion Captain Leon Flaubert, of the Marine Experimental Department of the French Navy, had not had three consecutive hours' sleep.  He was an enthusiast on the subject of submarine navigation. He firmly believed that the nation which could put to sea the first really effective fleet of submarine vessels would hold the fleets of rival nations at its mercy and acquire the whole ocean and its coasts as an exclusive territory. To anyone but an enthusiast it would have seemed a wild dream and yet only a few difficulties had still to be overcome, a few more discoveries made, and the realisation of the dream would be merely a matter of money and skilled labour.  Now the Cherbourg evolutions had proved three things. The submarines could sink and remain below the surface of the water. They could be steered vertically and laterally, but once ten feet or so below the water, they were as blind as bats in bright sunshine.  Moreover, when their electric head-lights were turned ...
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Max Pemberton (1901) Pro Patria - Windsor Magazine June-Nov. 1901 The French plan an invasion of England through a channel tunnel they are constructing. SYNOPSIS OF EARLY CHAPTERS This story is related by Captain Alfred Hilliard, a young Englishman of considerable means and social position, who is spending some time on the Continent with his friend, Fordham. At Pau, Hilliard became acquainted with a Colonel Lepeletier and promptly fell in love with his daughter. When the Lepeletiers returned to their home in Calais, Hilliard followed them ; but though he had every reason to believe that Agnes Lepeletier cared for him, his offer was positively declined by her father, no reason being assigned. At their house he met a man whom he had known when a boy, as Robert Jeffery, but who was known as Sadi Martel to the French household.Jeffery, alias Martel, had deteriorated with years, and was now a man given to drink and thoroughly unscrupulous. He invited Hilliard to go with him and inspect some excavations, purporting to be harbour works and coal borings, which were being carried on by the shore, and which he was superintending. Never for a moment suspecting any treachery, Hilliard him one ...
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Sir Max Pemberton (1901) The Giant's Gate, the Story of a Great Adventure Sir Max Pemberton (19 June 1863 – 22 February 1950) was a popular British novelist, working mainly in the adventure and mystery genres. He was educated at St Albans School, Merchant Taylors' School, and Caius College, Cambridge. A clubman, journalist and dandy (Lord Northcliffe admired his 'fancy vests'), he frequented both Fleet Street and The Savage Club. Pemberton was the editor of boys' magazine Chums in 1892–1893 during its heyday. Between 1896 and 1906 he also edited Cassell's Magazine, in which capacity he published the early works of R. Austin Freeman and William Le Queux. [Wikipedia] France is again the unsuccessful antagonist in The Giant's Gate: A Story of a Great Adventure (1901), this time using advanced submarines to bypass the UK's defence systems. [SFE at: http://sf-encyclopedia.com/entry/pemberton_max#sthash.vKSjj2gY.dpuf] There is an unfavourable review in the Spectator: The Spectator, 12 October 1901, p.23 at http://archive.spectator.co.uk/article/12th-october-1901/23/other-novels Another unflattering review: "The Giant's Gate". It is to be feared that this book will not add to Max Pemberton's reputation as a writer of good stories. It is Interesting in a way and the fact that the scene is laid in the France of ...
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Louis Tracy (1901) The Invasion / The Invaders The stratagems of the enemy varied according to the knowledge and intentions of the authors of these tales of imaginary warfare. One device much used by popular writers of the period was to describe a treacherous attack by a Fifth Column of alien workers. In The Invaders, written by the journalist Louis Tracy in 1901, disguised French and German troops pour from their hiding places to seize Liverpool, Birmingham and Derby. [I.F. Clarke - The Shape of Wars to Come, History Today, Volume: 15 Issue: 2 1965]. This storyline also occurs in Walter Wood's The Enemy in Our Midst. [Extract]: 'All I know is, that at six o'clock I was walking home from my office when, as I passed the telegraph office, a large number of men suddenly rushed into it. I heard shots within and shrieks. The police came. A crowd gathered. Mounted men, in khaki uniforms, but speaking German or French, seemed to drop from the sky and cut down or shoot every policeman or other person in their way. At the same moment I heard the booming of cannon in the river. I was carried away by the crowd ...
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A.C. Curtis (1902) A New Trafalgar. A tale of the torpedo fleet - Smith, Elder & Co The story is the celebration of the new warship, the destroyer, a British invention which first came into service in 1893 [I. F. Clarke (1997) The Great War with Germany, 1890-1914. P.429] A. C. Curtis's A New Trafalgar (1902) was one of the first novels to imagine a lightning German naval strike against Britain in the absence of the Channel Squadron; fortunately, the Royal Navy has a lethal new battleship in reserve which wins the day [Niall Ferguson (1998) The Pity of War]. We have not sufficient technical knowledge to say whether Mr. Curtis's " battle-forts " and the "devil-ship exterminators" are possible craft or merely the figments of a too optimistic imagination. At any rate, they appear like " gods out of the machine " to save the day for England when everything looks hopeless. [Spectator review 17 May 1902 - http://archive.spectator.co.uk/article/17th-may-1902/21/a-new-trafalgar-by-a-c-curtis-smith-elder-and ] ...
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The Riddle of the Sands by Erskine Childers This is the book that has probably introduced more current readers to Invasion Literature than any other. It has appeared in countless editions since its publication and remains popular today. It is, at one and the same time, a spy novel, a sailing adventure and a warning of the dangers Britain faced from Germany. There are many online resources about this book including: Wikipedia Guardian Graeme Shimmin Blog Paul Talbot blog A BBC In Our time discussion of the book and its historical context: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00bzdg4 A detailed description of the background to the book can be found in David Seed's paper: 'Erskine Childers and the German Peril' (German Life & Letters 45:1 Jan 1992) The definitive account of the background to the writing of the book is Maldwin Drummond's The Riddle. Further information about Childers and the book can be found in Leonard Piper's The Tragedy of Erskine Childers. Some background relating to Childer's own sailing adventures is contained in his sailing log-books at the National Maritime Museum - some narrative is at: http://www.rmg.co.uk/explore/sea-and-ships/in-depth/erskine-childers Hynes comments that Riddle of the Sands 'obviously belongs to an early stage in the German Invasion scare ...
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Griffith, G. (1903) The World Masters Published by John Long, London. Synopsis: (kindly provided by Adam Baldwin, PGRS, The Open University) The World Masters has a complex plot, focussed on three main factions all in pursuit of an invention by Professor Emil Fargeau of a machine that can draw the energy from the earth for redistribution. Professor Fargeau is an Alsace, outwardly loyal to the German regime, in place since the Franco-Prussian war of 1870/1, but secretly loyal to France. His son, Victor, is an officer in the German army, but like his father is loyal to France, and passes military secrets to the French government when he can. After his initial successful experiment in a laboratory, and his realisation that the magnetic poles would be the best place to mine for this new force, Prof. Fargeau offers his finding to the French government, who dismiss him as a crackpot, and in despair and immeasurable debt, he drowns himself in the English channel. He sends a copy of his experiments and plans to his son, who has no financial wherewithal to do anything with it, and seals another set in a box he ties to his clothing before he drowns ...
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Ubique [Sir Frederick Gordon Guggisberg] (1903) Modern warfare : or, How our soldiers fight Brigadier-General Sir Frederick Gordon Guggisberg KCMG DSO (20 July 1869 – 21 April 1930) was a senior Canadian-born British Army officer and British Empire colonial administrator. He published a number of works on military topics and Africa. [Wikipedia] The book describes an Anglo-German war in the manner of a detailed army manual. It attracted little attention, although the writer described a German invasion of Belgium and a British warning that any attack on Belgium would be considered a hostile act. In consequence, when the German armies cross the Belgian frontier on July 1st, 1905, " the telegraph lines from London flash the order to 'mobilize' to the Army and Navy in all parts of the United Kingdom. Before midday every corner of the Empire knows that Britain and Germany are at war." [I.F. Clarke (1965) 'The Shape of Wars to Come', History Today, Feb 1, 1965]   ...
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Headon Hill (1903) Seaward for The Foe, Ward Lock & Co, London Headon Hill was the pseudonym of Francis Edward Grainger. Available online (USA access only) at Hathitrust ...
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H. G. Wells (1903) The Land Ironclads, Strand Magazine, December 1903 "The Land Ironclads" is a short story by H.G. Wells that originally appeared in the December 1903 issue of the Strand Magazine. It features "land ironclads," 100-foot-long (30 m) machines that are equipped with remote-controlled guns and that carry riflemen, engineers, and a captain. (The term "ironclad" was coined in the mid-19th century for steam-propelled warships protected by iron or steel armour plates.) The land ironclads are described as "essentially long, narrow, and very strong steel frameworks carrying the engines, and borne on eight pairs of big pedrail wheels, each about ten feet in diameter, each a driving wheel and set upon long axles free to swivel around a common axis. . . . the captain . . . had look-out points at small ports all round the upper edge of the adjustable skirt of twelve-inch ironplating which protected the whole affair, and . . . could also raise or depress a conning-tower set above the port-holes through the center of the iron top cover." Riflemen are installed in cabins "slung along the sides of and behind and before the great main framework," and operate mechanically targeting automatic rifles. The story contributed to Wells's reputation as ...
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James Barnes (1904) The Unpardonable War, London & New York, MacMillan A British - USA conflict. A war between England and America is the impossible idea of novel by an American Writer, James Barnes, which Messrs. Macmillan are about to publish. He calls it "The Unpardonable War." which is just what such a conflict would be. Even in this story the thing not supposed to happen until The century is considerably older. It comes about in a delightfully simple way, for the editor of an American paper has nothing more to do than stir up popular feeling against us. Sea fights and new explosives crack through Mr. Barnes' pages once he has the war fairly going. [New Zealand Herald, 21 January 1905] Full Text at: https://archive.org/details/cu31924022244978 ...
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Allen Clarke (1904) Starved into Surrender The threat of an interrupted food supply recurs frequently in invasion fiction, where it typically appears in support of dual arguments in favor of rejuvenating the country's agriculture and augmenting the navy. In fact, one strain of the genre--the blockade narrative (of which The Sack of London is a sample) —is specifically tailored to address concerns over the potential consequences of the fact that the workshop of the world did not produce sufficient quantities of its own food. ….. Allen Clarke's Starved into Surrender (1904), plotted according to this premise as well, depicts the allied Russian and French fleets conducting a blockade of Britain whose grisly effects are accelerated by the nefarious work of Russian agents who have secretly bought up the nation's corn reserves; meanwhile, Russian troops launch an invasion of India, and French forces occupy the Channel Islands. The text's political agenda, however, is atypical of the form. As one character sums up its anti-imperialist and anti-militarist moral, "Instead of going crazy to plant the Union Jack all over the map, we ought to have planted corn at home."  [Matin, A. Michael (1999) "The Hun Is at the Gate!": Historicizing Kipling's Militaristic ...
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Griffith, G. (1904) The Stolen Submarine  - serialised in 1904 in Dundee Evening Telegraph. [Other sydications to be checked] Published in book form as The Stolen Submarine: A Tale of the Russo-Japanese War by by F. V. White & Co., Ltd. in London. An advanced French super-submarine is stolen and sold to Russia. " THE STOLEN SUBMARINE."THE SERIAL STORY FOR THE TIME !By George Griffith.New and Exciting Tale of Modern Warfare.A COLOSSAL BOOM BY AN EMINENT NOVELIST.This novel. which been running as a serial in a great London Daily is creating an extraordinary interest amongst all classes of the community in the Old Country, every instalment being eagerly devoured and excitedly discussed in a manner recalling the sensational successes of Mr. Wilkie Collins and the earlier times of Charles Dickens. Auckland Star, Volume XXXV, Issue 161, 7 July 1904, Page 3 ...
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G. Rome Hall (1904) The Black Fortnight, Or, The Invasion of 1915, Swan Sonnenschein & Co The Times Literary Supplement (London), Friday, February 26, 1904; p.63: THE BLACK FORTNIGHT, or The Invasion of 1915 by G. Rome Hall, M.D. 128 pp., Sonnenschein,1s. Dr. Hall writes in the interest of social democracv, and shows how the great war of 1915 was due to the schemes of financiers. However, after the Continental Powers had invaded Britain, Britain invaded them back again, and the result was a great international federation. There is ability in the book, but its English, and even its spelling, leave much to be desired ...
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August Niemann (1904) The Coming Conquest of England (Der Weltkrieg deutsche Traume) translated by J. H. Freese, Routledge & Sons Ltd AUTHOR'S PREFACE:I recall to mind a British colonel, who said to me in Calcutta: "This is the third time that I have been sent to India. Twenty-five years ago, as lieutenant, and then the Russians were some fifteen hundred miles from the Indian frontier; then, six years since, as captain, and the Russians were then only five hundred miles away. A year ago I came here as lieutenant-colonel, and the Russians are right up to the passes leading to India." The map of the world unfolds itself before me. All seas are ploughed by the keels of English vessels, all coasts dotted with the coaling stations and fortresses of the British world-power. In England is vested the dominion of the globe, and England will retain it; she cannot permit the Russian monster to drink life and mobility from the sea. "Without England's permission no shot can be fired on the ocean," once said William Pitt, England's greatest statesman. For many, many years England has increased her lead, owing to dissensions among the continental Powers. Almost all wars have, for ...
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Jules Verne (1904) Master of the World [Maître du monde]. A sequel to Robur the Conqueror. As a fantastical novel rather than a prediction of future war it, like Robur the Conqueror, is somewhat out of scope of this site but is included for completeness and comparison. Summary [Wikipedia]: A series of unexplained happenings occur across the eastern United States, caused by objects moving with such great speed that they are nearly invisible. The first-person narrator John Strock, 'Head inspector in the federal police department' in Washington, DC, travels to the Blue Ridge Mountains of North Carolina to investigate and discovers that all the phenomena are being caused by Robur, a brilliant inventor who had previously appeared in Verne's Robur the Conqueror. Robur had perfected a new invention, which he has dubbed the Terror. This is a ten-meter long vehicle, that is alternately speedboat, submarine, automobile, or aircraft. It can travel at the (then) unheard of speed of 150 miles per hour on land and at over 200 mph when flying. Strock attempts to capture the Terror but instead is captured himself. The strange craft eludes its pursuers and heads to the Caribbean where Robur deliberately heads into a thunderstorm. The ...
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Anonymous (1905) 'Sink, Burn, Destroy': Der Schlag gegen Deutschland The Germans make a pre-emptive strike against the British Navy but Britain is saved by the intervention of the USA to protect its trade with Britain and Europe. Partial translation in I.F. Clarke's The Great War with Germany, 1890-1914 ...
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Elliot Evan Mill (1905) The decline and fall of the British Empire : a brief account of those causes which resulted in the destruction of our late ally, together with a comparison between the British and Roman Empires ; appointed for use in the national schools of Japan. Purports to be a history written in 2005 describing the decline of the British Empire. PREFACE.    THIS little book is intended for use in the upper classes of our National Schools. It will, we hope, supply a long-felt need. Any Empire, which wishes to play a notable part in the history of the World, must realize that other Empires as proudly exultant as herself have passed away. If she wishes to avoid a similar fate, her inhabitants must from childhood be acquainted with the errors of their predecessors if haply they may avoid them. Had the English people, at the opening of the Twentieth Century, turned to Gibbon's Decline and Fall of *the Roman Empire, they might have found in it a not inaccurate description of themselves. This they failed to do, and we know the result. In compiling this book, my thanks are therefore due to that laborious author. In numerous ...
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Garrett Mill (1905) In the hands of the Czar, Blackwood To the unsophisticated person who knows nothing of the mysteries of the diplomatic service, the ways and manners of the various diplomats who take a hand in the game as it is played in Jn the Hands of the Czar seem stagey and too ineptly mysterious. Four of them arrive in succession at a hotel On the borders of Switzerland ; three are interested in the signing of some vague document that is to bring about an alliance between Germany, France and Russia, and the fourth, the English secret agent, is bent upon preventing the accomplishment of this project or of getting to know all about it. They suspect the wrong man of being the English agent; they go in a small boat out into the middle Of a lake in order to discuss their affairs where they cannot be overheard, and the Englishman schemes to obtain a knowledge of their private talk. Some of the devices (that dropping of the roses from a balcony, and the dropping of the newspapers from the same, for example) are almost childishly trivial, and one scarcely sees what the perpetrators of them gain ...
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E. Phillips Oppenheim (1905) A Maker of History "Not as you and I understand it, perhaps," Spencer explained. "There is no Scotland Yard extending a protecting arm over the place, and that sort of thing. But the place is haunted by spies, and there are intrigues carried on there in which the secret service police often take a hand. In return it is generally very hard to get to the bottom of any disappearance or even robbery there through the usual channels. To the casual visitor, and of course it attracts thousands from its reputation, it presents no more dangers perhaps than the ordinary night café of its sort. But I could think of a dozen men in Paris to-day, who, if they entered it, I honestly believe would never be seen again." Full text available at: https://archive.org/details/makerofhistoryby00oppe ...
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William Gordon Stables (1905) The Meteor Flag of England: The Story of a Coming Conflict, J. Nisbet Set in the distant Near Future, a 1980 world where dreadnoughts can attain a speed of 300 knots, and where which Britain must defend herself against Invasions from both Russia and Germany [SFE] "A rousing tale of war. England, some eighty years hence [c1980], has to fight a combination of powers on sea and land. How she meets her foes and overcomes them is told in Dr. Stables' well-known vigorous style." ...
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Walter Wood (1905) Submarined - Pearson's Magazine, February 1905 A short story of a disabled British battleship taking refuge and defending itself against a submarine attack by a diver blowing up the submarine with a mine. In Walter Wood's story, "Submarined," the lieutenant of a damaged battleship turns the tables on an enemy submarine. The battleship Samson limps into an out-of-the-way cove to make repairs, but is spotted by an enemy torpedo boat, which quickly withdraws. The crew of the Samson realizes the enemy will send a submarine at night to finish off the battleship; they discuss their options. Lieutenant Harden convinces the captain to allow him to don an underwater suit and take the ship's only remaining mine, and wait along the path the submarine must take. When the underwater boat is close enough, Harden explains, he will detonate the mine, thereby "submarining" the submarine. The scheme works, but Harden sacrifices his life in the process, as the crew knew he must. The attitude of the ship's captain is that submarine warfare is not "honest fighting," as there is "no way of guarding against them." So, Harden's sacrifice is particularly poignant insofar as it is a maneuver against which ...
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Beowulf [Maximilian Kern] (1906) Der deutsch-englische Krieg. Vision eines Seefahrers. Berlin : H. Walther Full text (In German): http://digital.staatsbibliothek-berlin.de/werkansicht/?PPN=PPN671080822&LOGID=LOG_0001 ...
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Karl Bleibtreu (1906) Völker Europas ... !: Der Krieg Der Zukunft [Peoples of Europe ...! The war of the future] A very detailed future war novel which ends in the concentration of Vereiniten States of Europe. Clarke is very dismissive of Bleibtreu's earlier works - three books under the generic title of Die Entscheidungsschlachten des europaischen Kriegs, 18..  [I.F. Clarke (1966) Voices Prophesying War 1763-1984], Full text (German): https://archive.org/details/vlkereuropasder00bleigoog ...
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General Staff [pseud.] (1906) The Writing on the Wall, London, William Heinemann The author was Major-General Thomas Picher. Presented as an excerpt of a history book from 1915 recounting the events of a successful German attack on Britain in 1908 and the ensuing war that involved also France, Austria and Russia. The object of this work is to call the attention of the public to the absolute unpreparedness of our land forces for the tasks which they may be called upon to perform. The 'history' ends with a detailed description of the reforms that were enacted in Britain to prevent any future such disasters. In 1906, Pilcher had also published an anonymous invasion novel, The Writing on the Wall, which described a German invasion of Britain. The war he theorised was an invasion by Germany followed by a rapid collapse of the British forces, particularly the volunteers, which he saw as unfit for purpose; he advocated a form of conscription and a mandatory reserve system to strengthen the Army. The Spectator was dismissive, comparing the novel unfavourably to The Invasion of 1910 ("many useful hints are given as to practical lessons ... [but] the general plot entirely destroys any value ...
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W. Holt White, The Earthquake (1906). An earthquake & German invasion simultaneously hit London. In the early hours of September 8, 1907 , an earthquake of unprecedented power strikes London. Nelson's Column topples over. St. Paul's Cathedral is shaken to pieces. The Houses of Parliament subside into a great heap of rubble Westminster Abbey party collapses. Bridges across the Thames tumble into the river. And the Thames itself is blocked below Gravesend, cutting off shipping and threatening England with starvation. With appalling death, destruction and chaos in every direction, Prime Minister Blair dedares martial law and begins restoring order. But the situation is worse than he can imagine. For evil forces in the person of Von Prosen of Saxony are at work, plotting to permanently cripple England and bring the Empire down. Standing against Von Prosen is Blair's nephew, the Earl of Wilmers, and the woman Wilmers loves, American heiress Virginia Newcombe. After discovering the enorrnity of the scherne, Wilmers and Virginia must race against time and Von Prosen's henchrnen to save England from violent uprising and economic collapse before it's too late. [Reprint publisher's description] ...
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William Le Queux (1906) If England Were Invaded / The Invasion of 1910 / The Invasion Description (from Wikipedia): The novel was originally commissioned by Alfred Harmsworth as a serial which appeared in the Daily Mail from March 19, 1906. The story's rewrite to feature towns and villages with high Daily Mail readership, greatly increased the newspaper's circulation and made a small fortune for Le Queux; it was translated into twenty-seven languages, and over one million copies of the book edition were sold. The idea for the novel is alleged to have originated from Field Marshal Earl Roberts, who regularly lectured English schoolboys on the need to prepare for war. To Le Queux's dismay, a pirated and abridged German translation (with an altered ending) appeared the same year: Die Invasion von 1910: Einfall der Deutschen in England translated by Traugott Tamm. The book takes the form of a military history and includes excerpts from the characters' journals and letters and descriptions of the fictional German campaign itself. It is centred on an invasion by the Germans, who have managed to land a sizable invasion force on the East Coast of England. They advance inland, cutting all telegraph lines and despoiling ...
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Ernest Oldmeadow (1906) The North Sea Bubble: A Fantasia A post "Battle of Dorking" spoof. Ernest Oldmeadow's earlier North Sea Bubble (1906) also imagined the Germans wooing their new vassals with universal Christmas gifts and subsidised food. Indeed, the worst atrocities inflicted by the occupiers in Oldmeadow's German Britain are the introduction of a diet of sausages and sauerkraut, the correct spelling of Handel's name in concert programmes and Home Rule for Ireland.[Niall Ferguson (1999) Pity of War] Up to 1906 these writers had told their stories as they had happened: then Ernest Oldmeadow changed the point of view in The North Sea Bubble by cutting out the preliminaries and coming directly to the consequences. …….. The invasion has long since finished. The United Kingdom is part of the Reich. and a German Statthalter rules in London. [I.F. Clarke (1997) The Great War with Germany, 1890-1914] Extract: THE GERMAN CONQUEST OF GREAT BRITAINBy the middle of December 1910, the German conquest of Great Britain was practically complete. The execution of the Mayor of Birmingham and the deportation to Heligoland of all politicians tainted with Imperialist opinions had not been without effect. Even Warwickshire and Kent lay sullenly quiet at last ...
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Seestern [Ferdinand Heinrich Grautoff ] (1906) Der Zusammenbruch der alten Welt Ferdinand Heinrich Grautoff (1907) Armageddon 190-  by Seestern ; translation by G. Herring ; with an introduction by E. R. Fremantle, London, Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner Translator's Preface: As this book is being introduced to English readers by so distinguished a god-parent as Sir E. Fremantle, there is no need for the translator to dwell upon its value. In view of the result of the recent German elections, however, it is not without interest to remember that it is now some fifteen months since it was originally published in Germany, that it rapidly reached a circulation of 100,000 copies, and since that time—whether coincidence or otherwise—a pacific spirit appears gradually to have prevailed among the German people, while a more concentrated persistence has none the less been directed by them to the strengthening and increasing of their fleet. It is, as Sir E. Fremantle implies, instructive to see ourselves occasionally in the mirror of foreign opinion, and not less so to find that a thoughtful German writer, who evidently from the reception his book has met with reflects the attitude of many of his countrymen, regards with genuine horror ...
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Tregellis, J. (1906) Britain Invaded - Boys' Friend This is one of several stories published by John Tregellis who had several long running stories: 'Britain Invaded' (1906), 'The Secret of the Thames' (1909), 'Britain at Bay' (1906-07), 'Kaiser or King?' (1912) running in the Boys' Friend. As 1914 neared the invasion stories came thick and fast. John Tregellis was the name under which many of them appeared. In 1912 this author had 'The Flying Armada' running in the Boys' Friend, and 'Britain Invaded', followed by 'Britain at Bay', in the Marvel. In the Dreadnought was 'The War in the Clouds', not to mention a serial called 'Doom', which told of a great cataclysm overtaking the earth. 'Britain Invaded' started with the sudden cutting of the North Sea cables and the simultaneous dawn landing of five Army Corps totalling 200,000 men — at Hull, Boston, Cromer, Lowestoft and Frinton. In the battle from the word 'go' were the cadets of Greyfriars (not the Greyfriars) who rapidly became an élite corps. The Kaiser, whose yacht was on the scene at an early stage, was not to be killed. That instruction came from 'higher up'. He was to be taken alive. [E.S. Turner ...
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The Private War - Being the Truth about Gordon Traill - His Personal Statement by Louis Joseph Vance and H. C. Edwards, 1906, D. Appleton & Co An expose style account of mysterious confrontations with the German Navy in the North Sea that makes reference to the Dogger Bank Incident. Full text at: https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=osu.32435075846964&view=2up&seq=8 ...
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Patrick Vaux (1906) The Shock of Battle, London, Putnams This is a story of modern warfare, rapid and telling in its style, and full of effective action. The writer has produced not only a successful narrative, but a number Of vigorous descriptions, excellent in themselves and contributing to the tensity of the situations. A war between Great Britain and Germany, supposed to take place after the opening of the Panama Canal, serves as an opportunity to develop the horrible scenes of a twentieth-century conflict. Political causes are merely touched upon, and the author confines himself to the presentation Of the actual battles, in which even the trained and scientific fighters of this century fall back to a certain degree upon their primal instincts. This record Of a naval battle abounds in pictures so revolting and at the same time so realistic that it brings home once more the terrible discrepancy between the methods of modern warfare and the ideals of our civilization. (The Shock of Battle. By Patrick Vaux. G. P. Putnam's Sons. New York. $1.50.)  [The Outlook, September 8, 1906, p. 92] The Shock of Battle. By Patrick Vaux. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Mr. Vaux, the title-page ...
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Walter Wood (1906) The Enemy in Our Midst. In Walter Wood's The Enemy in our Midst (1906) there is a `German Committee of Secret Preparations' covertly laying the foundation for a putsch in London. [Niall Ferguson, The Pity of War]. The idea of an foreign army in hiding in England also appears in Louis Tracy's The Invasion. Extract: It was Captain Mahler who spoke; and, as he uttered the words, the weals on his face once more became livid. He spoke confidently, for he knew that he was in a dwelling which was as safe a gathering-place as any which could have been found in London. There were no police to watch their movements, no detectives to ferret out their objects. Even they, in a free country, aliens all, were as untrammelled as if they had been the native-born Englishman whom it was their deliberate purpose to supplant. 'And when will London be ready for the death-wound?' asked a dark, silent man, named Captain Roon. 'She is ready now. At last!' replied Mahler. 'And could there be a better beginning than this riot?' There was a gleam of exultation in his eyes. 'Listen,' he continued, passionately, 'we have reached the ...
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Karl Bleibtreu (1907) Die 'Offensiv-lnvasion ' gegen England, Berlin, Schall & Rentel. Shows how a German fleet could launch a successful surprise attack against the British. It may be exactly this perceived shift in the center of international and ethnic gravity that prompted German author Karl Bleibtreu to write in his 1907 future-war narrative, Die 'Offensiv-lnvasion ' gegen England: "every European war could only benefit the other continents of the world ... Napoleon's old statement is truer than ever today: 'Every war in Europe is always a civil war'.... Only a peacefully united Europe can maintain itself against the growing strength of other races and against the economic dominance of America." Bleibtreu's attempt to realign the center of Western power to once again fall somewhere between London and Berlin was ultimately futile.  [Charles Gannon (2003) Rumors of War and Infernal Machines, p.59] ...
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Ernest Bramah, What Might Have Been, 1907. Abridged and rereleased as The Secret of the League in 1909. The secret of the league is a dystopian novel written by Ernest Bramah in 1907. It was first published as “What might have been: the story of a social war”, but later was republished in 1909 as “The secret of the league”. The novel is widely credited as having influenced George Orwell for his 1984. In the 1906 General elections, the Labour party arises from nowhere (2 seats) to become a potent force in British politics (29 seats). The surprising result is followed by social unrest and strikes, scaring the middle and upper classes, as the prospect of a Labour government is no longer so far-fetched. [Les editions de LONDRES, https://www.editionsdelondres.com/The-secret-of-the-League ] The process has been constitutional, but the changes have been revolutionary. The House of Lords has been abolished, the Church’s land has been seized, Ireland has declared independence, and the Empire is largely dismantled: many of the Colonies, have ‘dropped off into the troubled waters of weak independence’, while the others ‘clung on with pathetic loyalty’ despite ‘the disintegration of all mutual interests’. It hardly needs saying of the government ...
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Robert William Cole (1907) The Death Trap Germany, France, and Russia go to war with Britain (the French under duress, the others willingly), destroy the British fleet, and invade southern England. Britain is nearly defeated and as profiteering, government bungling and the acts of German agents bring the country close to revolution, a heroic general is called upon to lead the country to victory. With the aid of the Japanese navy (the Japanese remembering Britain as allies from their war with Russia) the General engages the German fleet at the last moment. France switches sides just before the battle, and the enemy fleet is turned away.  [Wikipedia] Once the British navy is out of the way, we will prove that the theories of eminent British strategists are wrong, by landing eight hundred thousand men, with full equipment of guns and horses, in a few weeks. The road from the coast to London is quite open, and the country as defenceless as a garden. The British have only their regulars and auxiliaries to depend upon, between three and four hundred thousand altogether. They cannot obtain more soldiers, because they have no compulsory military service or universal military training. The stolid British ...
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Joseph Conrad (1907) The Secret Agent The Secret Agent: A Simple Tale is a novel by Joseph Conrad published in 1907. The story is set in London in 1886 and deals largely with the life of Mr. Verloc and his job as a spy. The Secret Agent is also notable as it is one of Conrad's later political novels, which move away from his typical tales of seafaring. The novel deals broadly with the notions of anarchism, espionage, and terrorism. It portrays anarchist or revolutionary groups before many of the social uprisings of the twentieth century. However, it also deals with exploitation, particularly with regard to Verloc's relationship with his brother-in-law Stevie. [Wikipedia] ''The Secret Agent,'' Joseph Conrad's 1907 novel about an anarchist plot to blow up the Royal Observatory at Greenwich -- in fact, a scheme by a secret police agent to stir up a government backlash -- has acquired a kind of cult status as the classic novel for the post-9/11 age. Conrad's villain, the Professor, who never goes out without a glass vial of high explosives in his breast pocket and a detonator in his palm, has been taken to be a prescient portrait of the terrorists ...
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A. J. Dawson (1907) The Message, London, E. Grant Richards At six o'clock the German terms were accepted, a provisional declaration of peace was signed, and public proclamations to that effect, embodying reference to the deadly perils which would be incurred by those taking part in any kind of street disorder, were issued to the public. As to the nature of the German terms, it must be admitted that they were as pitiless as the German tactics throughout the invasion, and as surely designed to accomplish their end and object. Berlin had not forgotten the wonderful recuperative powers which enabled France to rise so swiftly from out of the ashes of 1870. Britain was to be far more effectually crippled.    The money indemnity demanded by General von Füchter was the largest ever known: one thousand million pounds sterling. But it must be remembered that the enemy already held the Bank of England. One hundred millions, or securities representing that amount, were to be handed over within twenty-four hours. The remaining nine hundred millions were to be paid in nine annual instalments of one hundred millions each, the first of which must be paid within three months. Until the last ...
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George Griffith (1907) The world peril of 1910, London,  F. V. White & Co. Ltd. CHAPTER I - A MOMENTOUS EXPERIMENT On the first day of July, 1908, a scene which was destined to become historic took place in the great Lecture Theatre in the Imperial College at Potsdam. It was just a year and a few days after the swimming race between John Castellan and the Englishman in Clifden Bay. There were four people present. The doors were locked and guarded by two sentries outside. The German Emperor, Count Herold von Steinitz, Chancellor of the Empire, Field-Marshal Count Friedrich von Moltke, grandson of the great Organiser of Victory, and John Castellan, were standing round a great glass tank, twenty-five feet long, and fifteen broad, supported on a series of trestles. The tank was filled with water up to within about six inches of the upper edge. The depth was ten feet. A dozen models of battleships, cruisers and torpedo craft were floating on the surface of the water. Five feet under the surface, a grey, fish-shaped craft with tail and fins, almost exactly resembling those of a flying fish, was darting about, now jumping forward like a cat pouncing ...
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Julius von Hoppenstedt (1907) Die Schlacht der Zukunft [The Battle of the Future] Full text (German) at: http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.32044080693815;view=1up;seq=9 ...
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Rudolf Martin (1907) Berlin-Bagdad; Das deutsche Weltreich im Zeitalter der Luftschiffahrt, 1910-1931 Rudolf Martin's science-fiction extravaganza Berlin—Baghdad (1907) visualized 'The German World Empire in the Age of Airship Travel, 1910—1931' but here the principal conflict is between Germany and a post- revolutionary Russia. An ultimatum to England — prior to the complete unification of Europe under German leadership — comes as something of an afterthought and is soon forgotten when the Russians launch an air attack on India. [Niall Ferguson (1999) The Pity of War] Fiction writers, describing similar attacks, embellished them with concrete details and spectacular—even lurid—descriptions of the results. Rudolf Martin, in his 1907 novel Berlin-Baghdad, imagined the pacification of rebellious Central Asian villages by the dropping of "two or three" aerial bombs and a Russian aerial attack on Berlin in which airships sweep over the city "like a flight of fantastic dragons," leaving in their wake forty thousand dead and seventy thousand injured. [A. Bowdoin Van Riper (2004) Imagining Flight: Aviation and Popular Culture, p.24] After the initial wave of futuristic novels in the late nineteenth century, a new kind, reflecting increased international tensions, appeared. One of the first and most widely imitated of these was a ...
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Oppenheim, E. Phillips (1907) The Great Secret (aka. The Secret) "Diplomacy demanded a victim," he said, "and I never flinched. Two men knew the truth, and they are dead. My scheme was a bold one. If it had succeeded, it would have meant an alliance with Germany, an absolute incontrovertible alliance and an imperishable peace. France and Russia would have been powerless—the balance of strength, of accessible strength, must always have been with us. Every German statesman of note was with me. The falsehood, the vilely egotistic ambition of one man, chock-full to the lips with personal jealousy, a madman posing as a genius, wrecked all my plans. My life's work went for nothing. We escaped disaster by a miracle and my name is written in the pages of history as a scheming spy—I who narrowly escaped the greatest diplomatic triumph of all ages. That is the epitome of my career. You believe me?" Reviews at: http://projectgutenbergproject.blogspot.co.uk/2014/04/review-great-secret-by-e-phillips.html http://vintagepopfictions.blogspot.co.uk/2013/06/e-phillips-oppenheims-great-secret.html Full text available at: http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/9872 ...
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Hew Scott (1907) The Way of War, London, John Long A plan for a German invasion is uncovered. Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser - Thursday 13 June 1907, p.10: Tales of invasion, particularly of German invasion, have been so frequent during the past year or two, that Mr. Hew Scott courted, if not failure, at least indifference, by venturing once more on this theme. "The Way of War" (London : John Long, 6s.) must, however, be hailed as an unqualified success. It so cleverly written and the suspense is so well maintained that one can well imagine a reader sitting up through the night into the early morning to learn " what came of it at last". A young British naval officer, when studying the defences of the German ports, discovers evidence of an imminent attack on country by German naval and military forces. At the same time the German police discover his mission, and attempt to kidnap him. He is determined to inform the Admiralty of his alarming discovery to convey to Loudon a copy of the secret dispositions which fallen into his hands. His journey from Kiel to the Dutch frontier while all the time detectives, aided ...
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Patrick Vaux & Lionel Yexley (1907) When The Eagle Flies Seaward WHEN THE EAGLE FLIES SEAWARD. By Patrick Vaux and Lionel Yexley. 6s. (Hurst & Blackett.) The eagle is the German eagle. and its flight is a naval war against Britain, which ends in the complete discomfiture of the Teutons by land and sea. The book closes jerkily with the sentence, " Germany as a Sea power had ceased to be." But this desirable result is not attained by patriotic Britons without terrible loss of life and property, and the authors lose no opportunity of belittling, in genuine Jingo fashion, all who would suggest any reduction in the naval estimates or any rearrangement of the military forces in Great Britain. The animus of the novel against the present Government is undisguised. Yet it would be a pity to let this prevent the reader from enjoying the vivid descriptions of the sea-fights in the North Sea. where the main business of the war is conducted. The lurid pictures of cruisers in action are the choice part Of the book. Where the authors are weakest is in the region of the plot. The German invasion of Britain is not described with verisimilitude ...
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Walter Wood (1907) The Tunnel Terror - attributed to Pearson's Magazine March 1907 Set in 1920 a mistaken belief that the Germans are invading through the recently completed Channel Tunnel results in a mob blowing up the British end of the tunnel. The story is described in Everett Franklin Bleiler & Richard Bleiler's Science-fiction, the Early Years and in the Science Fiction Encyclopedia ...
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201, The Sub-Lieutenant, Blackwoods Magazine, Jan 1908 A naval war and blockade between Britain [? and Dutch] (Islanders) and Germany (Teutons). THE war had lasted for nearly a year, and the Islanders were getting very tired of it. This particular war had been immensely popular to begin with. Even the Labour members had given it a lukewarm benediction. Here was a case of a great big bullying Power squeezing the life out of a little nation a tenth her size. Clearly a case in which it was righteous for the Islanders to interfere. But instead of dry-docking their ships and calling in their reserves, what must they do but trust at first to moral suasion and peaceful protests. Teutonia and moral suasion As well attack an ironclad with a brad-awl as expect her to listen to a protest unbacked by fleets and armies ...
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Anonymous (1908) Essence of Parliament - Punch, July 15, 1908 A satirical sketch of Parliamentary proceedings. Available online at: https://archive.org/stream/punchvol134a135lemouoft#page/n561/mode/2up ...
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Pierre Giffard (1908) La Guerre Infernale - illustrated by Albert Robida. La Guerre Infernale was an adventure novel for children, published as a serial, an edition appearing every Saturday. The 520 illustrations were created by Albert Robida. It described the second world war, years before it happened, describing an attack on London by the Germans and war between Japan and the United States. It was subsequently republished as a book. [Wikipedia] Still, some futuristic visions did dream big, like the colorfully illustrated 1908 French serial La Guerre Infernale, which anticipated the second World War more than the first with its massive scale and outlandish weaponry. [WW1 Online] A comprehensive description (in French) with many illustrations is at: http://www.merveilleuxscientifique.fr/auteurs/robida-alfred-la-guerre-infernale/ The full text/images of five editions can be found at: http://digital.library.villanova.edu/Collection/vudl:292001 For more on Robida see: La Guerre au Vingtième Siècle   ...
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Coulson Kernahan (1908) The Red Peril, London, Hurst and Blackett Limited A planned German invasion of Britain. The Emperor smiled. " Why don't you warn the English Government," he said, that in view of the certainty of the introduction of the airship within the next few years, England would do well to prepare for foreign invasion by raising an army on the same scale as the armies of other great Powers, and by the only system that she can possibly hope to do so —I mean, of course, by conscription? It is the only method. No Continental Power of any importance could hope to exist without conscription. The coming of the airship will place England very much in the same position and very nearly as open to invasion as the rest of the Continent—excepting, of course, for the fact that she alone will have no army, that is proportionate to her position, with which to defend herself. I repeat that there is only one way of raising such an army—conscription. Meanwhile, and until the invasion of England is an accomplished fact, she will go on living in her fool's paradise. It will be too late then, hurry as she may, ...
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Arthur Wellesley Kipling (1908) The New Dominion - A Tale of To-morrow's Wars The New Dominion: A Tale of Tomorrow's War (1908), a Yellow Peril tale, pits the USA triumphantly against Japan and Germany, with the help of Great Britain. [SFE] Author's Introduction: A few words are necessary to explain the object of this book. It was inspired by the "war scare" at the time of the difference with Japan over the San Francisco Schools. Its object is to show the power of the American Navy even in its present state, and to point the dangers by which we may someday be beset. The Navy of a country is essentially a police organization. That is to say that it is designed to keep the peace ,not to break it. The stronger and the better organized and equipped the police force of a city may be, the fewer are the murders, robberies and disorders to chronicled. The greater, better organized and better manned a Navy may be, the less numerous will be the attempts to force its owners into war. For over a century England has been the undisputed mistress of the seas and, barring the "little unpleasantness" of 1812-14 and ...
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Charles H. Kirmess (1908) The Commonwealth Crisis serialised in The Lone Hand, Sydney  [later (1909) The Australian Crisis in book form Thomas Lothian, Melbourne & Walter Scott Publishing Company, London] "From the 1880s to the first World War, the fear of an Asian invasion, whether migratory or military, was a major theme in Australian literature as it was in Australian politics. It excited the imagination of utopian socialists, bush balladeers and radical reformers, and was a central, if misunderstood, motif in the 'Legend of the Nineties' which strove to define a 'National Culture.' This literary preoccupation, which amounted almost to an obsession, expressed itself through cartoons, short stories, plays, films, and most substantially of all, novels. Of the latter the three most important were 'White or Yellow? A Story of the Race War of A.D. 1908', written by William Lane under the pseudonym of 'The Sketcher', which appeared in the Brisbane weekly the Boomerang from 18 February to 5 May 1888; The Yellow Wave: A Romance of the Asiatic Invasion of Australia by Kenneth Mackay, which was published in 1895; and The Australian Crisis by C.H Kirmess (Frank Fox?), which came out first as a serial entitled Commonwealth Crisis in ...
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105 [Capt. C.E. Vickers] (1908) The Trenches, Blackwood's Magazine Vol. CLXXXIII, January 1908 Although naval writers had no doubt that the new warships and the new armaments had changed the conduct of war at sea, it was unusual to find the military expecting any great change in land warfare. Perhaps it could only have been an Engineer officer like Captain Vickers who had the specialist knowledge that told him: 'The machine has begun to dominate war.' The situation he describes in his story is comparable to the trench warfare that began along the Western Front in October 1914. The answer to the tactical problem Vickers set himself in 1908 was to invent a machine, 'to evolve a machine that shall dig trenches, that shall be able to move unconcernedly across open ground where no man can show himself scatheless, secure under its turtleback of steel'. When Colonel Swinton considered the stalemate on the Aisne in 1914, he thought that the best way of dealing with machine-guns and barbed wire was to invent a land-crossing armoured fighting vehicle. So, on 20 October he went to see his old friend Lieutenant-Colonel Hankey, Secretary to the Committee of Imperial Defence, and from that ...
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H.G. Wells, (1908) The War in the Air The War in the Air, a military science fiction novel by H. G. Wells written in four months in 1907 and serialised and published in 1908 in The Pall Mall Magazine, is like many of Wells's works notable for its prophetic ideas, images, and concepts—in this case, the use of the aircraft for the purpose of warfare and the coming of World War I. The novel's hero is Bert Smallways, a "forward-thinking young man" and a "kind of bicycle engineer of the let's-'ave-a-look-at-it and enamel-chipping variety." Overview [Wikipedia] The first three chapters of The War in the Air relate details of the life of Bert Smallways and his extended family in Bun Hill – a (fictional) former Kentish village which had become a London suburb within living memory (in many ways similar to Bromley where Wells was born). The story begins with Bert's brother Tom, a stolid greengrocer who views technological progress with suspicion and apprehension (which would turn out to be all too well founded) and their aged father, who recalls with longing the time when Bun Hill was a quiet village and he had driven the local squire's carriage. However, ...
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Anonymous - Punch (1909) The Invaders - Punch, 17th March 1909 Another satirical piece in Punch satirising the stories of Le Queux and others. Available online at: https://archive.org/stream/punchvol136a137lemouoft#page/n228/mode/1up ...
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Hans Graf von Bernstorff (1909) Deutschlands Flotte im Kampf: Eine Phantasie A detailed, well- illustrated account of the modern German navy and a future war at sea. Bernstorff was a naval officer who was later a bestselling writer in his time (1905-1914), especially for magazines such as Das Neue Universum and Der Gute Kamarad. His pseudonyms include H. von Benno and Grafin Helena Gyldensteen. [I. F. Clarke, Voices Prophesying War: Future Wars 1763-3749 (1992), p. 233] An unnamed overpowering enemy (meaning certainly England) forcing Germany to war. The novel describes the various naval battles of the German Navy up to the victorious final battle off Heligoland ...
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Charles M. Doughty (1909) The Cliffs and (1912) The Clouds His book-length poems are all fantastic in nature, and two of them are of some sf interest as perhaps the most arcane Future War tales ever told: The Cliffs (1909) features an airborne "Persanian" invasion of England, which is successfully repelled; in The Clouds (1912) a similar invasion is successful, and England occupied. Both poems are designed as warnings to complacent Britons, though it is hard to think that more than a few hundred readers ever came to terms with Doughty's deeply eccentric though formidable style. [SFE] Full text (The Clouds) at: http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc2.ark:/13960/t71v5mv44;view=thumb;seq=1 ...
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Major Guy du Maurier (1909) An Englishman's Home - A Play in Three Acts 'An Englishman's Home' caused a sensation in London when it appeared anonymously, under the name "A Patriot", in 1909. It first played at Wyndham's Theatre on 27 January and went on to be a long-running success. It is now considered a significant example of the invasion literature popular at the time. The play was produced by Guy's brother Gerald du Maurier, possibly without his knowledge and with some assistance from J. M. Barrie. The story concerns an attack on England by an unnamed foreign power, generally assumed to represent Germany. The home of an ordinary middle-class family is besieged by soldiers, and the play climaxes with the father shooting an enemy officer and subsequently being executed. The play stressed Britain's unpreparedness for attack, and has been credited with boosting recruitment to the Territorial Army in the years immediately before World War I. [Wikipedia] There is background on its influence on recruiting for the Territorials at: http://25thlondon.wordpress.com/2013/08/11/an-englishmans-home-a-play-by-major-guy-du-maurier/ Full text at: https://archive.org/details/anenglishmansho00maurgoog See also: A Nation in Arms   ...
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Ferdinand Heinrich Gautoff (1909) Banzai!, by Parabellum (pseud) Published in Berlin in 1908 and published in English translation in 1909 it relates to a Japanese attack on the American fleet. FOREWORDEvery American familiar with the modern international political horizon must have experienced a feeling of solid satisfaction at the news that a formidable American fleet was to be dispatched to the waters of the Pacific, and the cruise of our warships has been followed with intense interest by every loyal citizen of our Republic. The reasons that rendered the long and dramatic voyage of our fleet most opportune are identical with the motives that actuated the publication of this translation from the German of a work which exhibits a remarkable grasp of facts coupled with a marvelously vivid power of description. It is no secret that our ships were sent to the Pacific to minimize the danger of a conflict with our great commercial rival in the Far East, if not to avert it altogether, and Banzai! it seems to me, should perform a similar mission. The graphic recital, I take it, is not intended to incite a feeling of animosity between two nations which have every reason to maintain ...
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Napier Hawke (1909) The Invasion That Did Not Come Off The Invasion That Did Not Come Off by an author named Napier Hawke, satirizes the very conventions to which it both adheres and contributes. Hawke sends up the army, navy, government, and press; representative characters are distinguished only by their stupidity, corruption, and contentiousness. This parodied cross-section of participants in the invasion debate is captured by the Germans and sees the preparations for invasion first-hand.  [Joseph Michael (1990) The Germans are Coming!] Published in 1909, "The invasion that did not come off" is one of the more lurid works of invasion literature, in which an over-confident Britain is rife with German agents, including several members of the Cabinet.  Far from demonised, Germany is highly praised by Hawke as “the one progressive and scientific country in the world”.  Commending her “phoenix-like” history, Britain’s enemy is described as enjoying “the virility and exuberance of youth, albeit its roots reached back to prehistoric times”. [Harry Wood (2015)  Comparisons to Rome in Edwardian language of national and imperial decline] ...
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William Le Queux (1909) Spies of the Kaiser. Plotting the Downfall of England Spies of the Kaiser  was published in 1909, and raised spymania to new extremes. Again, Le Queux’s fantasies had their popularity massively boosted by the  Daily Mail’s hype machine. And again the story was presented as non-fiction. [Graeme Shimmin, Le Queux: How One Crazy Spy Novelist Created MI5 and MI6] Still, as fanned by Le Queux, Lord Roberts and the press, British suspicions of Germany reached its high-water mark upon publication of Spies of the Kaiser. Teeming with authentic and, if not evidence, at least well researched incidental detail, Spies of the Kaiser chronicled the discovery of all manner of German espionage activities, ranging from surveillance of England’s coastal defenses to attempted thefts of plans for advanced battleships, submarines, and airplanes. To lend further credibility to the narrative, Le Queux noted in the introduction: “As I write, I have before me a file of amazing documents, which plainly show the feverish activity with which this advance guard of our enemy is working.” [Brett F. Woods, War, Propaganda, and the Fiction of William Le Queux] Introduction: IF ENGLAND KNEW No sane person can deny that England is in ...
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Rudolf Emil Martin (1909) Der Weltkrieg in den Lüften Britain, which had allied itself to France, is defeated by a fleet of German airships ...
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A. A. Milne (1909) The Secret of the Army Aeroplane - Punch 26th May 1909 Note: the year is misquoted by I.F. Clarke and copied by later writers as 1908. THE SECRET OF THE ARMY AEROPLANE. (Mr. WILLIAM LE QUEUX wishes to deny indignantly that the following tale was written by him. On the contrary, he identifies himself completely with the proprietor of The Daily Mail in deprecating the publication of scare stories. As the proprietor of The Daily Mail truly says, such stories " place England and Englishmen in a ridiculous and humiliating light before the German people." At the same time Mr. LE QUEUX is bound to confess that the story printed below bears an astonishing resemblance to his latest imaginative work, Spies of the Kaiser—-a book only just published, but written in the days of his hot and unregenerate youth, many weeks ago.) A. A. Milne's "The Secret of the Army Aeroplane" (Punch, May 1908) satirized Britain's scaremongers who claimed that her technological advances lay open to foreign spies and infiltrators.[A.J. Echevarria (1998) "Tomorrow's Army: The Challenge of Nonlinear Change", Parameters, Autumn 1998.] Much funnier, to my mind, is 'The secret of the Army aeroplane' (p. 366) ...
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Sir Ernest Dunlop Swinton (aka. O'le Luk-Oie) (1909) The Green Curve & Other Stories Major General Sir Ernest Dunlop Swinton, KBE, CB, DSO, RE (21 October 1868 – 15 January 1951) was a British Army officer who was active in the development and adoption of the tank during World War 1. He was also a war correspondent and author of several allegorical works of fiction on military themes, including a lastingly influential book on tactics and good practice. He is credited with having coined the word "tank" as a code-name for the first tracked, armoured fighting vehicles. [Wilipedia] All the stories in his 1909 collection The Green Curve are worth reading, but a really remarkable one is ‘The Point of View’, which prefigures many of the themes that would dominate fiction about the War. [From a review of one of the stories - A Point of View - at: http://greatwarfiction.wordpress.com/2010/06/15/swintons-the-point-of-view/] Full text of the Green Curve: https://archive.org/details/greencurveothers00swinrich Swinton is discussed at length in Charles Gannon's (2003) Rumors of War and Infernal Machines (pp.65-80)   Swinton was heavily involved in the concept of the tank and tank warfare. A factual article appeared in the Strand in 1917: https://archive.org/stream/TheStrandMagazineAnIllustratedMonthly/TheStrandMagazine1917bVol.LivJul-dec#page/n285/mode/2up ...
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B. S. Townroe, H. (1909) A Nation in Arms (Play) A play produced on behalf of the National Service League as a counter to An Englishman's Home. The play and its background is described in Harry Woods article: Representations of compulsory military service in Edwardian Invasion-scare fiction 1899-1914 A contemporary Review in Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser, Tuesday 21 September 1909, p.6: NEW PLAY AT WARRINGTON The new play, "A Nation in Arms" by Mr. B. S. Townroe, which has for its object the National Service League idea of the danger the country is running by relying on the Territorial forces, was produced at the Warrington Theatre last night. There was a crowded and fashionable audience, including many military people. The cast was filled by most capable artistes, and the play, being full of dramatic interest, was a distinct success. It is a novelty to see England in the hands of a triumphant enemy as the result of a successful invasion, and the audience was wonderfully sympathetic in the face of national disaster. Mr. Townroe, in answer to enthusiastic calls from all parts of the house, came forward and was the object of great ovation. He asked his audience ...
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John Tregellis (1909) The Secret of the Thames - The Boys' Friend The only description I can find at present comes from Friends of the Dorothy Neal White Collection: In John Tregellis’s ‘The Secret of the Thames’, invasion of Britain across the North Sea is again a focus. The hero of the piece, Hervey Milton, is an amateur sailor and employee of the War Office. The story opens with Hervey tackling a difficult entrance to the mouth of the Thames. He explains to his comrade that the Thames estuary holds notorious sands and banks that are mostly undetectable, even in daylight. Having succeeded, he moors his yacht and arrives at the War Office where he is asked his advice on the Thames’ defences....During his mission Hervey uncovers a sinister German plot to invade Britain across the North Sea, but instead of using the cream of the High Seas Fleet, they plan to use lighters, flat-bottomed barges intended for transporting goods. On discovering this Hervey rushes back to the War Office to report on this fiendish but highly effective plot to circumvent the Royal Navy ......  Despite Hervey’s protestations the invasion eventuates in the manner foretold with 120,000 foot and guns ...
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Lloyd Williams (1909) The Great Raid, Black & White Publishing Company (First published in Black and White in serial form). An invasion occurs while Britain is fighting a naval battle in the South Atlantic with "two of the greatest naval powers in the world" ...
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The Swoop! or How Clarence Saved England, by P. G. Wodehouse A comic short novel satirizing the genre of invasion literature. The Swoop!, or How Clarence Saved England is a short comic novel by P. G. Wodehouse, first published in the United Kingdom by Alston Rivers Ltd, London, on April 16, 1909. Its subtitle is A Tale of the Great Invasion. An adapted and much abbreviated version, set in the United States, appeared in the July and August 1915 issues of Vanity Fair under the title The Military Invasion of America and with the subtitle A Remarkable Tale of the German-Japanese Invasion of 1916. The original story was not published in the United States until 1979, four years after Wodehouse's death, when it was included in the collection The Swoop! and Other Stories. [Wikipedia] Text available at: http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/7050/pg7050.html ...
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Anonymous (1910) Strength at the Helm - Punch 7th December 1910. A satirical article on German Spies. Available online at: https://archive.org/stream/punchvol138a139lemouoft#page/902/mode/2up ...
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Compton Irving Carter (1910) Peggy the Aeronaut. Carter's story, Peggy the Aeronaut, was dedicated to Colonel H. S. Massy, founder and first president of the Aerial League of the British Empire, and introduced by Major B. S. Baden Powell, another propagandist for the air weapon. Powell claimed that, as today's fiction is tomorrow's fact, the British public must be 'goaded on to realise what they have to face in the near future'. Hence his endorsement of this predictive novel. The story concerns Peggy — a female aviator — and her friend Justin, inventor of an advanced fighting aeroplane armed with quick-firing guns. As the inventor says, 'With this aircraft, dirigibles and dreadnoughts are out of date. Government inaction has allowed Germany to draw ahead in the air race, and now Britain is at risk: 'As long ago as 1909, the Secretary for War assured the Country that dirigibles and aeroplanes were to be purchased … Yet nothing was done …. That lightly given assurance was the Government's answer to the steady activities of France, Germany and Russia. ' Unwisely, according to the author, air matters in Britain had been left to the military and the Navy, neither of whom understood ...
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Arthur Wellesley Kipling (1910) The Shadow of Glory: A History of the Great War 1910-1911 A German invasion and occupation of Britain is countered by the use of British airships attacking the Germans. After France enters the war, on Britain's side, Paris is besieged but is supported by airship. The Japanese use aircraft to attack the American navy. A fuller description can be found in Michael Paris (1992) Winged Warfare (pp. 43-44) ...
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William Le Queux (1910) The Unknown Tomorrow: How the Rich Fare at the Hands of the Poor The horrors of a socialist revolution in 1935. In a novel entitled The Unknown Tomorrow, he [Le Queux] presented a nightmare vision of England in 1935, ruled by socialism, with mobs sacking London and burning temples of high culture such as the British Museum and and the Bodleian Library. [David Stafford (2013) The Silent Game, p.34] ...
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Jack London (1910) The Unparalleled Invasion Under the influence of Japan, China modernizes and undergoes its own version of the Meiji Reforms in the 1910s. In 1922, China breaks away from Japan and fights a brief war that culminates in the Chinese annexation of the Japanese possessions of Korea, Formosa, and Manchuria. Over the next half century, China's population steadily grows, and eventually migration overwhelms European colonies in Asia. The United States and the other Western powers launch a biological warfare campaign against China, resulting in the destruction of China's population, the few survivors of the plague being killed out of hand by European and American troops. China is then colonized by the Western powers. This opens the way to a joyous epoch of "splendid mechanical, intellectual, and art output". [Wikipedia] For a view on the historical background of the "Yellow Peril" see G.G. Rupert. Essays on London: This essay examines Jack London’s 1910 short story “The Unparalleled Invasion” as a fantasy of racist nationalism (borrowing from his earlier “Yellow Peril” report from the Russo-Japanese War). London, like other American progressives of the early 20th century, looked to the emerging science of genetics and its implications for eugenicist technologies, finding ...
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Heath Robinson (1910) Cartoons, The Sketch These cartoons by Heath Robinson ridiculing the spy mania appeared during 1910 in The Sketch ...
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George Griffith (1911) The Lord of Labour. This book was published posthumously. So determined was Griffith that this book be published that he dictated part of it on his death bed. This future war novel features fantastical weapons. "In George Griffith's The Lord of Labour (written in 1906, published in 1911) the Germans invent a ray which can "demagnetize" metal in such a manner that it crumbles into dust on impact. The British fleet is manipulated into destroying itself when it fires its guns at the ray-wielding enemy fleet of wooden ships. But Anglo-Saxon ingenuity and civilization triumph as the English retaliate with helium-radium bullets of stupendous explosive power." ......... in George Griffith's 1906 The Lord of Labour (published posthumously in 1911), a German professor invents a disintegrating ray and proposes, like the scientific geniuses in the American novels, "to make warfare impossible by making it so awful that no man in his senses would go upon a battlefield. " But the Kaiser responds: "My dear Professor, before you make war impossible you will have to make another discovery. You will have to find out how to alter human nature". [Howard Bruce Franklin (2008) War Stars: The Superweapon and the ...
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Prof. Blyde Muddersnook P.O.Z.A.S. (1911) When the New Zealander Comes. Strand Magazine September 1911 A bit out of scope but an interesting story about a group of tourists from the far future visiting the ancient ruins of London in a manner reminiscent of Edwardian visitors to Greek and Roman archeological sites. I was enchanted by the description of Southwark (then known as 'Suthuk') most of which "is now reclaimed land planted with cabbages" ...
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Phillips Oppenheim, E. (1911) The Double Four, London, (aka. Peter Ruff and the Double Four,  Boston, Little, Brown and company, 1912) The Peter Ruff stories were printed between October 1909 and October 1911 in Pearson's Magazine (US). Really a series of detective, adventure stories but they doinclude an encounter with a German spy. Full text at: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/28091/28091-h/28091-h.htm and https://archive.org/details/peterruffanddou00unkngoog ...
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Lieut Colonel Alsager Pollock (1911) Lord Roastem's Campaign in North Eastern France With Sketch Map The Germans are supposed to have invaded North-Eastern France, where they are opposed by the Anglo- French allied armies. The operations of the British force under Lord Roastem form the basis of Colonel Pollock's discussion..... A MILITARY STUDY. In actual war the problems that arise in strategy and grand tactics invariably depend upon a number of highly complex factors. There are, indeed, few occupations more stimulating to the imagination and to the ingenuity of the student of war than the working out of such problems. Yet this branch of military science more often repels than attracts the comparatively uninitiated, since its apparent complexity is apt to obscure its fascinations. [Spectator review - 17 June 1911 http://archive.spectator.co.uk/article/17th-june-1911/24/a-military-stiidy-in-actual-war-the-problems-that-] See also: In the Cockpit of Europe (1913) Pollock's views on neutrality:   Daily Express July 28th 1914 ...
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G.G. Rupert (1911) The Yellow Peril Rupert was influential in the development of the idea of the Yellow Peril, the theory that East Asians (the "yellow races") were a present and future threat to the west. These views were published in The Yellow Peril, or the Orient vs. the Occident as viewed by modern statesmen and ancient prophets (1911). Rupert included Russia among the "oriental" races, which, he believed, would eventually invade America. According to Rupert the reference to "the kings from the East" in the Book of Revelation 16:12, was a prediction of this event. He believed that Russia would take control of China and Africa; this combined force would then try to overwhelm the West. He claimed that China, India, Japan and Korea were already undermining England and the U.S., but that Jesus Christ would stop them. The final victory of the Occident over the Orient would confirm biblical prophesies — as interpreted by Rupert. In later editions, Rupert adapted his theory to accommodate world events. In the third edition, published after the Russian Revolution, Rupert identified the rise of Bolshevism and the expansion of communism as the beginning of a process that would lead to the fulfilment ...
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Iwan T. Aminoff (1912) Invasionen (Invasion) [Republished (1914) as Det eröfrade landet (The Conquered Land ) The most famous of his [Aminoff's] Future War novels is Invasionen ["Invasion"] ..... Here the story is set in an already conquered Sweden, and although in the end the Swedes again prevail, Aminoff's call to strengthen the army is more urgent than ever, and is combined with exhortations to cast off those modern banes of western culture which Aminoff disdained: individualism, liberalism, materialism and egoism. [SFE] Full text (in Swedish) at http://runeberg.org/erofland/ Aminoff wrote a number of future war novels mainly involving Russia and Sweden but also including invasion of Norway and Finland: När krigsguden talar. För hem och härd. Romantiserad skildring af vårt kommande krig  (When the War God Speaks. For Home and Hearth. Romantic Account of Our War to Come ) (1903) Striden om Östersjön: framtidsroman  (The Battle of the Baltic: a Novel of the Future) (1907) Kriget Norge-Ryssland. Följder af olycksåret 1905   (The War Between Norway and Russia. The Effects of the Disastrous Year of 1905 ) (1906-1907 2vols) Söner af ett folk som blödt. Romantiserad skildring från Finlands frihetskamp i början af 20:e seklet  (Sons of a Blooded People. Romantic ...
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Spencer Campbell (1912) Under the Red Ensign; a story of England's peril. Andrew Melrose, London A war between Britain and Germany is settled by a single naval engagement. No further information available ...
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Richard Harding Davis (1912) 'The Invasion of England' in The Red Cross Girl  (A collection of short stories) This is the true inside story of the invasion of England in 1911 by the Germans, and why it failed. I got my data from Baron von Gottlieb, at the time military attaché of the German Government with the Russian army in the second Russian-Japanese War, when Russia drove Japan out of Manchuria, and reduced her to a third-rate power. He told me of his part in the invasion as we sat, after the bombardment of Tokio, on the ramparts of the Emperor's palace, watching the walls of the paper houses below us glowing and smoking like the ashes of a prairie fire. Full text at: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/1733/1733-h/1733-h.htm#link2HCH0003 Review: This is a collection of not very noteworthy stories, redeemed by a most spirited and moving sketch called " Tho Invasion of England." In this two Oxford undergraduates and a young American, anxious to break the record in practical joking, masquerade as German soldiers and spread the alarm on the East Coast. By a singular coincidence a German invasion is actually to take place that very evening. The alarm is given by the appearance ...
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Louis Gastine (1912)  Les Torpilleurs de l'air: Prodigieux exploits d'un aviateur français, Paris, La Maison du Livre Moderne.  Translated into English (1913) as War in Space: Or, an Air-Craft War Between France and Germany , London, The Walter Scott Publishing Co. A future war tale of aerial warfare between Germany and France ...
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Gustaf Janson (1912) 'A Vision of the Future' in Pride of War (translated from Swedish and published by Sidgwick & Jackson) A story of the use of aircraft fighting against conventional troops. The backdrop is the Italian-Turkish war of 1911. The general stepped back a pace. At a the sappers began to push the machine airman took his seat and started the motor experimentally. It was working perfectly. The great flying-machine wobbled about. The ground was not its element. With mighty, outspread wings, which demanded air and space under them, the machine moved heavily forward for a few yards. The airman, from his seat, at the officers. His comrades saluted their daring friend with their hands to their caps. The airman bowed slightly to the general, and then devoted his whole attention to the machine. The motor began to whirr. The flying-machine made a leap forward.The sun broke through a rift in the clouds. The aeroplane had left the ground and was rising swiftly in a slanting direction. The wings shone, the metal of the frame glittered. The machine rose higher and higher, glided into the sunshine and again into the shadow ; against the light background it looked like ...
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Wilhelm Lamszus (1912) The human slaughter-house. Scenes from the war that is sure to come. From the German, translated by Oakley Williams (1913). A horrific, realistic vision of the war to come. Review in The Advocate of Peace (1913) THE HUMAN SLAUGHTER-HOUSE. By Wilhelm Lamszus. Translated by Oakley Williams. With lntroduction by Alfred Noyes. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Co. 127 pp. 50 cents net ; post-paid, 56 cents. The pacifists of the early part of the last century often emphasized the horrors of war. In these latter days we have been stressing the importance of courts and arbitrations as the rational substitute for war. Prof. Wilhelm Lamszus, a German public schoolmaster, has gone back to first principles and given to us in his "Menschenschlachthaus" a most expert and convincing picture of a modern war. In this little book one finds revealed the automatic, mechanical, blind heartlessness of the soldier's sacrifice—no longer the "honorable soldier's death," but the death by "experts," bv "mechanicians," by "machinery." In these few pages the artist paints for us with the realization of a Zola the blood-red madness of battle, the big, glazed eyes and clawing fingers of death. We are shown with a few ...
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Naval Officer [Signed A H M] (1912) Great Was the Fall, London, J. Long An invasion by Germany on an unprepared Britain. Cautionary novel of the Battle of Dorking sort, with full novelistic treatment. The basic point of view is politically conservative grousing at British Naval unpreparedness due to false economy and 'misdirection' of government funds to programs for social improvement. [Everett Franklin Bleiler, Richard Bleiler (1990) Science-fiction, the Early Years] Preface: THIS book is dedicated to the British public, who know dangerously little about the Navy. It is written with no desire to create a scare, but in the hope that a full appreciation may be made of the vicissitudes to which warships are exposed. By an unfortunate concatenation of circumstances, it might so arise that we found ourselves, temporarily, but barely superior at sea to a hostile power. With the advantage of a surprise attack—and who can say such action is impossible superiority might become inferiority. Surely from a business point of view, it behoves the nation to spend enough on the assurance of its existence. Is it not better to create a fleet, perhaps even unnecessarily large, but one which leaves no loophole for the element of ...
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Adolf Sommerfeld (1912) Frankreichs Ende im Jahre 19?? (1870-1931) German journalist and author of a Future War novel, Frankreichs Ende im Jahre 19?? (1912; rev 1914 trans Louis G Redmont as How Germany Crushed France: (The Story of the Greatest Conspiracy in History) 1915), in which Germany, trusting safely in the neutrality of Britain and Russia, utterly defeats France in a very Near Future 1915. [SFE] ...
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Strang, H. (1912) The Air Scout: A Tale of National Defense An adventure story for juveniles. The Chinese invade Australia ...
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Frederick Britten Austin (1913) “Planes!” in In Action - Studies in War, London, Thomas Nelson and Sons This short story explores the impact of aeroplanes upon warfare especially on conventional troops. While many writers anticipated conflict between England and Germany, few envisioned the full scale of the war or all of the consequences, and many predictions relied too much on past precedents of less technologically-driven conflicts. Still, some futuristic visions did dream big, like the colorfully illustrated 1908 French serial La Guerre Infernale, which anticipated the second World War more than the first with its massive scale and outlandish weaponry, and H. G. Wells’ 1897 The War of the Worlds, which imagined the impact of unimaginably powerful alien war machines. Additionally, some authors wrote on a less global (or interplanetary) scale but still predicted the game-changing role of technology; for example, the devastating potential of airplanes envisioned in ‘Planes! by Frederick Britten Austin, or the submarine warfare described in Danger! by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1914). [WW1 Online - Imagined Wars: Envisioning the War to Come] Full text at: https://archive.org/details/inactionstudiesi00austuoft ...
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Captain S. M. Eardley-Wilmot (1894) The Next Naval War , London, Edward Stanford A description of a future naval war between Britain and France written by a respected naval writer and historian. Eardley-Wilmot is an expert in naval matters, and it is interesting to read his predictions, put into the historical tense, of what will happen in 1895, when France declares war with us on our failing to comply with her demand for the immediate evacuation of Egypt. [Review in Spectator - 21st July 1894] Extracts: Though the announcement in the morning papers of March the 1st, 1895, that the French Ambassador had presented to our Minister of Foreign Affairs the afternoon previously a demand for an early evacuation of Egypt by our troops, came upon the country like a clap of thunder, it was soon evident that for some years France had been secretly but energetically preparing for war. The great irritation against England of recent years, due to our prolonged stay in Egypt, had been much increased by the Congo treaty and the gradual extension of our influence north of Uganda. There was no doubt a footing in Khartoum from the south would soon follow, and we should ...
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Lieutenant-Colonel Alsager Pollock (1913) In the Cockpit of Europe. Smith, Elder, and Co. Britain comes to France's aid against Germany. Spectator Review 14 February 1914 http://archive.spectator.co.uk/article/14th-february-1914/25/in-the-cockpit-of-europe-by-lieutenant-colonel-als In a preface to In the Cockpit of Europe (SMITH, ELDER) Lieut.-Colonel ALSAGER POLLOCK states that "the personal experiences of George Blagdon, in love and war, have been introduced solely in the hope of inducing some of my countrymen to read what I have to say about other important matters"--an ingenuous confession which deprives my sails of most of their wind. Otherwise I should have said that this book is not so much a novel as an airing-ground for grievances, adding for fairness that these grievances are national and not personal. A terrific war with Germany gives Blagdon opportunity to win various distinctions, and Marjory Corfe affords him ample justification for falling in love; but although I grant, even in the face of that preface, that Blagdon is not completely a puppet, he is used mainly to emphasize his creator's ideas. Officials at the War Office who read In the Cockpit of Europe may possibly require some artificial aids to digestion before they have finished it, but both they and the Parliamentary and Ministerial ...
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When William Came by Saki (H. E. Munro) When William Came: A Story of London Under the Hohenzollerns is a novel written by British author Saki (the pseudonym of Hector Hugh Munro) and published in 1913. It is set several years in what was then the future, after a war between Germany and Great Britain from which Germany emerged victorious. The "William" of the title is Kaiser Wilhelm II, who came from the House of Hohenzollern, hence the subtitle. The book chronicles life in London under German occupation, and the changes that come with a foreign army's invasion and triumph. Like Robert Erskine Childers's 1903 novel The Riddle of the Sands, it predicts World War I (in which Saki would be killed) and is an example of invasion literature, a literary genre which flourished at the beginning of the 20th century as tensions between European nations increased. Much of the book is an argument for compulsory military service, about which there was then a major controversy. The scene in which an Imperial Rescript is announced in a subjugated London, excusing the unmilitary British from serving in the Kaiser's armies, is particularly bitter. There are also several vignettes exemplifying the differences ...
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M.P. Shiel (1913) The Dragon, London, Grant Richards. First published 1 January-15 March 1913 Red Magazine as "To Arms!". Republished in 1929 as The Yellow Peril. The Dragon. By M. P. Shiel. (Grant Richards. 6s.)— The motive of this book is exactly the same as that of Mr. Shiel's former novel, "The Yellow Danger," that is, the invasion of Europe by the combined forces of the Chinese and Japanese. The working-out of the book, however, is very different from that of its predecessor, the hero being no less a personage than the then Prince of Wales. As George V. is alluded to by this gentleman as "my revered ancestor," it may be concluded that the date of the book is some time hence. Mr. Shiel's writing suffers from its usual faults—the incidents are rather confused, the characters are wooden, and it is often difficult to follow the incidents of the story. Notwithstanding all this, there is a certain energy and vividness about the story which will carry all but the moat fastidious readers on to the end.  [Review in Spectator, 19 July 1913] Shiel’s last novel during his first literary phase was serialized as To Arms! in The Red Magazine, ...
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Herbert Strang (1913) The Air Patrol An adventure story for juveniles. Herbert Strang was the pseudonym of two English authors, George Herbert Ely (1866–1958) and Charles James L'Estrange (1867–1947). They specialized in writing adventure stories for boys. [Wikipedia] PREFACE It needs no gift of prophecy to foretell that in the not distant future the fate of empires will be decided neither on land nor on the sea, but in the air. We have already reached a stage in the evolution of the aeroplane and airship at which a slight superiority in aircraft may turn the scale in battle. Our imperial destinies may hinge upon the early or later recognition of the importance of a large, well-equipped, and well-manned aerial fleet. In The Air Scout I endeavoured to illustrate the part which an air-service may play in a combined naval and military campaign. The scene of the present story is laid among the vast mountain ranges of Northern India, where the issue of a great war may depend upon the aerial equipment of the opposing armies. Full text at: http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/42417 ...
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Edgar Wallace (1913) Private Selby A thriller about a German invasion based on Wallace's experience of the Boer War. According to SFE it was originally published in 1912 in The Sunday Journal (from March 1912). Full text at: Europeana ...
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The Riddle by Maldwin Drummond (1985) Nautical Books, London This is the definitive study of the background to the writing of The Riddle of the Sands. It includes details of Childers own sailing experiences and also a detailed account of the reception afforded the book in official circles and Childers involvement in this. Since 1904 The Riddle of the Sands by Erskine Childers has been the best known tale of yachting fiction in the English language. It has been continuously in print in numerous editions, has been the subject of a motion picture and has generated scores of articles and correspondence in papers and magazines. Maldwin Drummond has long made a study of Childers and his book, having become fascinated with its two themes which make an unlikely pair: the problems and ways of the Victorian small boat sailor and the politics and defence issues prior to the First World War. In The Riddle, Maldwin Drummond begins by looking at the wanderings of the yacht Dulcibella as her crew search for an answer to the strange happenings among the sands behind the German Frisian islands. The author highlights the urgent message from Childers that Germany was preparing to invade England ...
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Dr. Armgaard Karl Graves (1914) The Secrets of the German War Office Purported to be a true story it reads more like an imaginative attempt to capitalise upon spy fever.  [see contemporary review] The average man or woman has only a hazy idea what European Secret Service and Espionage really means and accomplishes. Short stories and novels, written in a background of diplomacy and secret agents, have given the public vague impressions about the world of spies. But this is the first real unvarnished account of the system; the class of men and women employed; the means used to obtain the desired results and the risks run by those connected with this service. Since the days of Moses who employed spies in Canaan, to Napoleon Bonaparte, who inaugurated the first thorough system of political espionage, potentates, powerful ministers and heads of departments have found it necessary to obtain early and correct information other than through the usual official channels. To gain this knowledge they have to employ persons unknown and unrecognized in official circles. A recognized official such as an ambassador or a secretary of legation, envoys plenipotentiary and consuls, would not be able to gain the information sought, as ...
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W. Douglas Newton (1914) War Published on the eve of war it describes an invasion (of Britain but not made explicit) by an enemy (Germany but not made explicit) There is a good overview at Great War Fiction at: http://greatwarfiction.wordpress.com/2010/08/15/war-by-w-douglas-newton/ Newton's novel has no particular literary merit, and author and book are alike forgotten. [Samuel Hynes (1968) Edwardian Turn Of Mind, p.50] Preface: THIS book will be called sensational and disgusting. That is precisely what it is, because it is an account of the sensational and disgusting thing called War ; at least it is an account of a few such incidents as any single individual, with reasonable powers of activity and observation, might easily see and experience should his country be invaded by another of the same degree of civilization as his own. It does not pretend to give statistics of the general ruin and devastation which must fall upon such a country ; or of the death-roll ; or of the years of misery and poverty that must follow : it does not describe the purely internal horrors that would certainly take place in our larger towns ; it merely pictures the kind of thing which we should ...
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F. Palmer (1914) The Last Shot Frederick Palmer (January 29, 1873 - September 2, 1958) was an American journalist and writer. 1914—The Last Shot—a novel about a fictional major European war, from the point of view of a small set of soldiers and civilians. Written before the start of World War I. [Wikipedia] Introduction: This story of war grew out of my experience in many wars. I have been under fire without fighting; known the comradeship of arms without bearing arms, and the hardships and the humors of the march with only an observer's incentive. A singular career, begun by chance, was pursued to the ends of the earth in the study of the greatest drama which the earth stages. Whether watching a small force of white regulars disciplining a primitive people, or the complex tactics of huge army against huge army; whether watching war in the large or in the small, I have found the same basic human qualities in the white heat of conflict working out the same illusions, heroisms, tragedies, and comedies. Full text at: https://archive.org/details/lastshot00sonsgoog Review: This story by Frederick Palmer, who for twenty years as war correspondent has known more of war than most men, ...
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H.G. Wells (1914) The World Set Free Preface: H. G. WELLS. EASTON GLEBE, DUNMOW, 1921. THE WORLD SET FREE was written in 1913 and published early in 1914, and it is the latest of a series of three fantasias of possibility, stories which all turn on the possible developments in the future of some contemporary force or group of forces. The World Set Free was written under the immediate shadow of the Great War. Every intelligent person in the world felt that disaster was impending and knew no way of averting it, but few of us realised in the earlier half of 1914 how near the crash was to us. The reader will be amused to find that here it is put off until the year 1956. He may naturally want to know the reason for what will seem now a quite extraordinary delay. As a prophet, the author must confess he has always been inclined to be rather a slow prophet. The war aeroplane in the world of reality, for example, beat the forecast in Anticipations by about twenty years or so. I suppose a desire not to shock the sceptical reader's sense of use and wont and perhaps ...
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John Buchan (1915) The Thirty-Nine Steps, Backwoods Magazine (Aug/Sep 1915) and William Blackwood & Sons (Oct 1915) Although published in 1915 Buchan started writing the story in August 1914 while convalescing and it is set prior to the First World War. It can be considered as a cross between an adventure story, a detective novel and a spy story, but Richard Hannay, the main protagonist, is seen as the precursor of the gentleman adventurer / spy. Geoffrey Powell, in a 1985 article in History Today, states that "The undercover spying mission of a British officer disguised as a Boer in German South-West Africa provided John Buchan with inspiration for his most famous character". (History Today, Vol 37 Issue 8) Background: [Wikipedia] John Buchan wrote The Thirty-Nine Steps while he was ill in bed with a duodenal ulcer, an illness which remained with him all his life. The novel was his first "shocker", as he called it — a story combining personal and political dramas. The novel marked a turning point in Buchan's literary career and introduced his famous adventuring hero, Richard Hannay. He described a "shocker" as an adventure where the events in the story are unlikely and the reader ...
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Paul Georg Münch (1915) Hindenburgs Einmarsch in London London falls to a German army led by Hindenburg. Full German Text at: https://archive.org/details/hindenburgseinma00mnch Hindenburg's March into London: Being a Translation from the German Original (London: John Long, 1916) tranlateds by Louis G Redmond-Howard ...
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Thomas Dixon, The Fall of a Nation: A Sequel to The Birth of a Nation, 1916 A warning story about an invasion of America by a prominent White Supremacist. The Fall of a Nation, a Sequel to The Birth of a Nation, is an invasion literature novel by Thomas Dixon Jr. Dixon described it as "a burning theme, our need of preparation to defend ourselves in the world war." First published by D. Appleton & Company in 1916, Dixon directed a film version released the same year. The film is now considered lost. [Wikipedia] Details of the film are available at: LostMediaWiki Full text at: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/48089/48089-h/48089-h.htm ...
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H. Irving Hancock (1916) Conquest of the United States - a series comprising four books: The Invasion of the United States, or Uncle Sam's Boys at the Capture of Boston In the Battle for New York, or Uncle Sam's Boys in the Desperate Struggle for the Metropolis At the Defense of Pittsburgh, or The Struggle to Save America's "Fighting Steel" Supply Making the Stand for Old Glory, or Uncle Sam's Boys in the Last Frantic Drive All set around 1920 and depicting the Invasion of the USA by a Germany which has already won the Great War in Europe.  [more at: http://www.sf-encyclopedia.com/entry/hancock_h_irving] Full text at: The Invasion of the United States - http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.hn1qqk;view=thumb;seq=1 At the Defense of Pittsburgh - https://archive.org/details/atdefenseofpitts00hanc ...
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William Le Queux (1916) The Zeppelin Destroyer - Being Some Chapters of Secret History, London, Hodder and Stoughton ........... Then, as was my habit, I went on to the Royal Automobile Club in Pall Mall, and, after my meal, sat in the window of the big smoking-room chatting with three of the boys—airmen all of them. George Selwyn, a well-known expert on aircraft and editor of an aircraft journal, had been discussing an article in that morning’s paper on the future of the airship. “I contend,” he said firmly, “that big airships are quite as necessary to us as they are to Germany. We should have ships of the Zeppelin and Schutte-Lanz class. The value of big airships as weapons of defence cannot be under-estimated. If we had big airships it is certain that Zeppelin raids—more of which are expected, it seems—would not be unopposed, and, further, we should be able to retaliate. We’ve got the men, but we haven’t got the airships—worse luck! The Invisible Hand of Germany has deceived us finely!” “That’s so,” I chimed in. “The Germans can always soothe their own people by saying that, however dear food is and all that, yet they can’t be ...
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Arthur Conan Doyle (1917) His Last Bow. The War Services of Sherlock Holmes - Strand Magazine, September 1917 and in book form in a collection of stories: His Last Bow: Some Reminiscences of Sherlock Holmes, John Murray, October 1917 Although falling slightly outside my time-frame this story is included as it marks a distinctive difference between what can be classified as detective novels, which covers most Sherlock Holmes stories, and spy novels and falling clearly into the latter genre. It also marks the end of the Sherlock Holmes era so deserves inclusion on that score alone. Synopsis [Wikipedia]: On the eve of the First World War, Von Bork, a German agent, is getting ready to leave England with his vast collection of intelligence, gathered over a four-year period. His wife and household have already left Harwich for Flushing in the Netherlands, leaving only him and his elderly housekeeper. Von Bork's diplomat friend, Baron von Herling, is impressed by his collection of vital British military secrets, and tells Von Bork that he will be received in Berlin as a hero. Von Bork indicates that he is waiting for one last transaction with his Irish-American informant, Altamont, who will arrive shortly with ...
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William Le Queux (1920) Secrets of the Foreign Office: Describing the Doings of Duckworth Drew of the Secret Service Secrets of the Foreign Office was first published in 1903. The author, William Le Queux, (pronounced 'Q'), was one of the first creators of the spy story. A journalist-turned-author, he successfully combined his passionate interest in national security and new technological developments, with his detailed knowledge of travel and high society in Europe, in these and other collections of short stories of intrigue and espionage. In this book Mr Drew receives instructions from the Marquis of Macclesfield, the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. Drew is a 'diplomatic freelance' - a secret agent working for British embassies around Europe. He moves in diplomatic and aristocratic circles with finesse and great discretion ". To this day she does not suspect the Englishman who made love to her so passionately."  [Publishers description] ...
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William Le Queux (1920) The Terror of the Air A few short years ago such a story as would have been characterised as wildly improbable if not absolutely impossible. But “today” we are well into the Aerial Age. Such a great pirate aircraft as Mr. Le Queux imagines is by no means beyond the realms of possibility, and a story such as he tells must cause thoughtful people to realise very forcibly the immense power which command of the air gives. The author describes vividly how the great pirate aeroplane terrorised the world, destroying aircraft and shipping, bombing London, New York and Paris, and spreading poison gas, disease germs and other horrors over its helpless victims. The account of the long war between the forces of order and the raider is full of breath-taking incidents, culminating in the thrilling and graphic description of the pirate craft's ultimate destruction. At this tune, when aviation is making such vast strides daily, this story is of immense interest. CHAPTER ONE THE COMING OF "THE TERROR" I have all my life been a man of action rather than of words. I hate writing—even letters—and I detest talking about myself. Consequently, it is difficult for ...
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Outside the main scope of this website but an interesting novel from 1929 that shows that invasion literature continued into the inter-war years. The Red Napoleon is a 1929 novel by Floyd Gibbons predicting a Soviet conquest of Europe and invasion of America. The novel contains strong racial overtones such as expressed fear of the yellow peril and of inter-racial breeding. However, the characters expressing these views are exposed in the text as being bigoted and ill-informed, as is one of the main U.S. character's views of the Soviet Union's free-love-but-with-male-accountability laws. The Red Napoleon was published in 1929 and projects the next few years. In it, Joseph Stalin is killed by an assassin in 1932. A Red Army leader takes over and starts a massive military buildup based on the immense human population of Asia. In 1933 the Red Army invades Poland. After conquering all of Europe later that same year, Red Napoleon's massive multi-racial army attempts to invade the U.S. but is repelled through canny use of the U.S.'s comparatively slender military resources, including airfields in Cuba, at the time of writing under U.S. control, and through grit and determination. At the book's end the narrator, a newspaperman ...
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