Diplomatic and Military Background

The Fenian Ram

The Fenian Ram was an early submarine developed by John Holland in the United States for the Fenian Brotherhood foe use by the Irish Republican Brotherhood. Description from Wikipedia: Fenian Ram is a submarine designed by John Philip Holland for use by the Fenian Brotherhood, American counterpart to the Irish Republican Brotherhood, against the British. The Ram's construction and launching in 1881 by the Delamater Iron Company in New York was funded by the Fenians' Skirmishing Fund. Officially Holland Boat No. II, the role of the Fenians in its funding led to the New York Sun to name the vessel ...
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The First Battle of Ironclads – 1862

A portent of future naval warfare: The first battle between ironclads: CSS Virginia (ex-USS Merrimac) (left) vs. USS Monitor, in 1862 at the Battle of Hampton Roads: First Battle of Iron Ships of War by Henry Bill. Shown are the USS Monitor, CSS Virginia, USS Cumberland, CSS Jamestown, USS Congress, and USS Minnesota: More at Wikipedia ...
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Morgan-Owen, D. (2017) The Fear of Invasion

David Morgan-Owen , The Fear of Invasion: Strategy, Politics, and British War Planning, 1880-1914, OUP 2017 The Fear of Invasion presents a new interpretation of British preparation for War before 1914. It argues that protecting the British Isles from invasion was the foundation upon which all other plans for the defence of the Empire were built up. Home defence determined the amount of resources available for other tasks and the relative focus of the Army and Navy, as both played an important role in preventing an invasion. As politicians were reluctant to prepare for offensive British participation in a future ...
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